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Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment
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Preface to the Third Edition xv Preface to the Second Edition xvii Preface to the First Edition xix Acknowledgements xxi Part I Background and Basic Considerations 1 1 History and Organization of Codes 4 1.1 Use of Process Vessels and Equipment 4 1.2 History of Pressure Vessel Codes in the United States 4 1.3 Organization of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 6 1.4 Organization of the ANSI B31 Code for Pressure Piping 6 1.5 Some Other Pressure Vessel Codes and Standards in the United States 6 1.6 Worldwide Pressure Vessel Codes 7 References 7 Further Reading 7 2 Selection of Vessel, Specifications, Reports, and Allowable Stresses 10 2.1 Selection of Vessel 10 2.2 Which Pressure Vessel Code is Used 10 2.3 Design Specifications and Purchase Orders 10 2.4 Special Design Requirements 11 2.5 Design Reports and Calculations 11 2.6 Materials Specifications 11 2.7 Design Data for New Materials 11 2.8 Factors of Safety 12 2.9 Allowable Tensile Stresses in the ASME Code 12 2.10 Allowable External Pressure Stress and Axial Compressive Stress in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 13 2.11 Allowable Stresses in the ASME Code for Pressure Piping 14 2.12 Allowable Stress in Other Codes of theWorld 14 2.12.1 European Union (EN) Countries 14 2.12.2 Japanese Code 15 2.12.3 People's Republic of China 15 2.12.4 Indian Code 15 2.12.5 Australian Code 16 References 16 3 Strength Theories, Design Criteria, and Design Equations 18 3.1 Strength Theories 18 3.2 Design Criteria 18 3.3 Design Equations 19 3.4 Stress-Strain Relationships 19 3.5 Strain-Deflection Equations 20 3.6 Force-Stress Expressions 22 References 23 Further Reading 23 4 Materials of Construction 26 4.1 Material Selection 26 4.1.1 Corrosion 26 4.1.2 Strength 26 4.1.2.1 Specified Minimum Yield Stress 27 4.1.2.2 Specified Minimum Tensile Stress 28 4.1.2.3 Creep Rate 28 4.1.2.4 Rupture Strength 28 4.1.3 Material Cost 30 4.2 Nonferrous Alloys 31 4.2.1 Aluminum Alloys 31 4.2.1.1 Annealing 31 4.2.1.2 Normalizing 31 4.2.1.3 Solution Heat Treating 31 4.2.1.4 Stabilizing 31 4.2.1.5 Strain Hardening 31 4.2.1.6 Thermal Treating 32 4.2.2 Copper and Copper Alloys 32 4.2.3 Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 32 4.2.4 Titanium and Zirconium Alloys 33 4.3 Ferrous Alloys 34 4.3.1 Carbon Steels 34 4.3.2 Low-Alloy Steels 34 4.3.3 High-Alloy Steels 34 4.3.3.1 Martensitic Stainless Steels 34 4.3.3.2 Ferritic Stainless Steels 34 4.3.3.3 Austenitic Stainless Steels 34 4.4 Heat Treating of Steels 35 4.4.1 Normalizing 35 4.4.2 Annealing 35 4.4.3 Postweld Heat Treating 35 4.4.4 Quenching 35 4.4.5 Tempering 35 4.5 Brittle Fracture 35 4.5.1 Charpy V-Notch Test (Cv) 36 4.5.2 Drop-Weight Test (DWT) 37 4.5.3 Fracture Analysis Diagram (FAD) 37 4.5.4 Theory of Fracture Mechanics 39 4.5.5 Relationship Between KIC and CV 41 4.5.6 Hydrostatic Testing 42 4.5.7 Factors Influencing Brittle Fracture 42 4.5.8 ASME Pressure Vessel Criteria 43 4.6 Hydrogen Embrittlement 50 4.7 Nonmetallic Vessels 50 References 50 Further Reading 51 Part II Analysis of Components 53 5 Stress in Cylindrical Shells 56 5.1 Stress Due to Internal Pressure 56 5.2 Discontinuity Analysis 60 5.2.1 Long Cylinders 61 5.2.2 Short Cylinders 66 5.3 Buckling of Cylindrical Shells 69 5.3.1 Uniform Pressure Applied to Sides Only 70 5.3.2 Uniform Pressure Applied to Sides and Ends 71 5.3.3 Pressure on Ends Only 72 5.4 Thermal Stress 72 5.4.1 Uniform Change in Temperature 75 5.4.2 Gradient in Axial Direction 76 5.4.3 Gradient in Radial Direction 77 Nomenclature 80 References 81 Further Reading 81 6 Analysis of Formed Heads and Transition Sections 84 6.1 Hemispherical Heads 84 6.1.1 Various Loading Conditions 86 6.1.2 Discontinuity Analysis 88 6.1.3 Thermal Stress 91 6.1.4 Buckling Strength 91 6.2 Ellipsoidal Heads 93 6.3 Torispherical Heads 95 6.4 Conical Heads 95 6.4.1 Unbalanced Forces at Cone-to-Cylinder Junction 96 6.4.2 Discontinuity Analysis 97 6.4.3 Cones Under External Pressure 98 6.5 Nomenclature 99 References 100 Further Reading 100 7 Stress in Flat Plates 102 7.1 Introduction 102 7.2 Circular Plates 102 7.3 Rectangular Plates 106 7.4 Circular Plates on Elastic Foundations 107 Nomenclature 109 Reference 109 Further Reading 109 Part III Design of Components 111 8 Design of Cylindrical Shells 114 8.1 ASME Design Equations 114 8.2 Evaluation of Discontinuity Stresses 115 8.3 ASME Procedure[2] for External Pressure Design in VIII-1 121 8.4 Design of Stiffening Rings 126 8.5 Allowable Gaps in Stiffening Rings 129 8.6 Out-of-Roundness of Cylindrical Shells Under External Pressure 129 8.7 Design for Axial Compression 132 Nomenclature 132 References 133 Further Reading 133 9 Design of Formed Heads and Transition Sections 136 9.1 Introduction 136 9.1.1 Flanged Heads 136 9.1.2 Hemispherical Heads 136 9.1.3 Elliptical and Torispherical (Flanged and Dished) Heads 136 9.1.4 Conical and Toriconical Heads 136 9.1.5 Miscellaneous Heads 136 9.2 ASME Design Equations for Hemispherical Heads 137 9.3 ASME Design Equations for Ellipsoidal, Flanged, and Dished Heads 139 9.4 ASME Design Equations for Conical Heads 143 9.4.1 Internal Pressure 143 9.4.1.1 Discontinuity Analysis for Internal Pressure 143 9.4.2 External Pressure 145 9.4.2.1 Discontinuity Analysis for External Pressure 145 Nomenclature 147 References 148 Further Reading 148 10 Blind Flanges, Cover Plates, and Flanges 150 10.1 Introduction 150 10.2 Circular Flat Plates and Heads with Uniform Loading 151 10.3 ASME Code Formula for Circular Flat Heads and Covers 153 10.4 Comparison ofTheory and ASME Code Formula for Circular Flat Heads and CoversWithout Bolting 154 10.5 Bolted Flanged Connections 154 10.6 Contact Facings 155 10.7 Gaskets 155 10.7.1 Rubber O-Rings 155 10.7.2 Metallic O- and C-Rings 155 10.7.3 Compressed Fiber Gaskets 158 10.7.4 Flat Metal Gaskets 158 10.7.5 Spiral-Wound Gaskets 158 10.7.6 Jacketed Gaskets 158 10.7.7 Metal Ring Gaskets 158 10.7.8 High-Pressure Gaskets 158 10.7.9 Lens Ring Gaskets 159 10.7.10 Delta Gaskets 159 10.7.11 Double-Cone Gaskets 159 10.7.12 Gasket Design 160 10.8 Bolting Design 161 10.9 Blind Flanges 163 10.10 Bolted Flanged Connections with Ring-Type Gaskets 164 10.11 Reverse Flanges 170 10.12 Full-Face Gasket Flange 171 10.13 Flange Calculation Sheets 176 10.14 Flat-Face Flange with Metal-to-Metal Contact Outside of the Bolt Circle 177 10.14.1 Classification of Assembly 177 10.14.2 Categories of Flanges 177 10.15 Spherically Dished Covers 177 Nomenclature 184 References 184 Further Reading 185 11 Openings, Nozzles, and External Loadings 188 11.1 General 188 11.2 Stresses and Loadings at Openings 188 11.3 Theory of Reinforced Openings 192 11.4 Reinforcement Limits 193 11.4.1 Reinforcement Rules for ASME Section I 195 11.4.1.1 No Reinforcement Required 195 11.4.1.2 Size and Shape of Openings 195 11.4.2 Reinforcement Rules for ASME Section VIII, Division 1 198 11.4.3 Reinforcement Rules for ASME, Section VIII, Division 2 204 11.4.3.1 Nomenclature 204 11.4.4 Reinforcement Rules for ANSI/ASME B31.1 210 11.4.4.1 No Reinforcement Calculations Required 210 11.4.5 Reinforcement Rules for ANSI/ASME B31.3 212 11.4.5.1 Nomenclature 213 11.5 Ligament Efficiency of Openings in Shells 215 11.6 Fatigue Evaluation of Nozzles Under Internal Pressure 217 11.7 External Loadings 218 11.7.1 Local Stresses in the Shell or Head 218 11.7.2 Stresses in the Nozzle 226 11.7.2.1 Nomenclature 227 References 230 Bibliography 231 12 Vessel Supports 234 12.1 Introduction 234 12.2 Skirt and Base-Ring Design 234 12.2.1 Anchor-Chair Design 239 12.3 Design of Support Legs 241 12.4 Lug-Supported Vessels 242 12.5 Ring Girders 243 12.6 Saddle Supports 245 Nomenclature 248 References 249 Further Reading 249 Part IV Theory and Design of Special Equipment 251 13 Flat-Bottom Tanks 254 13.1 Introduction 254 13.2 API 650 Tanks 254 13.2.1 Roof Design 254 13.2.1.1 Dome Roofs 254 13.2.1.2 Conical Roofs 256 13.2.1.3 Small Internal Pressure 256 13.2.2 Shell Design 258 13.2.3 Annular Plates 261 13.3 API 620 Tanks 263 13.3.1 Allowable Stress Criteria 266 13.3.1.1 Compressive Stress in the Axial Direction with No Stress in the Circumferential Direction 266 13.3.1.2 Compressive Stress with Equal Magnitude in the Meridional and Circumferential Directions 266 13.3.1.3 Compressive Stress with Unequal Magnitude in the Meridional and Circumferential Directions 267 13.3.1.4 Compressive Stress in One Direction and Tensile Stress in the Other Direction 267 13.3.2 Compression Rings 267 13.4 Aluminum Tanks 270 13.4.1 Design Rules 270 13.5 AWWA Standard D100 271 References 273 Further Reading 273 14 Heat-Transfer Equipment 276 14.1 Types of Heat Exchangers 276 14.2 TEMA Design of Tubesheets in U-tube Exchangers 276 14.3 Theoretical Analysis of Tubesheets in U-tube Exchangers 280 14.4 ASME Equations for Tubesheets in U-tube Exchangers 283 14.4.1 Nomenclature 283 14.4.2 Preliminary Calculations 285 14.4.3 Design Equations 288 14.5 Theoretical Analysis of Fixed Tubesheets 291 14.6 ASME Equations for Fixed Tubesheets 293 14.6.1 Nomenclature 293 14.6.2 Preliminary Calculations 294 14.6.3 Design Equations 294 14.7 Expansion Joints 300 14.8 Tube-to-Tubesheet Junctions 303 References 305 Further Reading 305 15 Vessels for High Pressures 308 15.1 Basic Equations 308 15.2 Prestressing (Autofrettaging) of Solid-Wall Vessels 309 15.3 Layered Vessels 311 15.4 Prestressing of Layered Vessels 315 15.5 Wire-Wound Vessels 317 Nomenclature 317 References 318 Further Reading 318 16 Tall Vessels 320 16.1 Design Considerations 320 16.2 Earthquake Loading 320 16.2.1 Lateral Loads 320 16.2.2 Numerical Method for Calculating Natural Frequency 324 16.3 Wind Loading 331 16.3.1 External Forces fromWind Loading 332 16.3.2 Dynamic Analysis ofWind Loads 332 16.4 Vessel Under Internal Pressure Only 336 16.5 Vessel Under Internal Pressure and External Loading 338 16.6 Vessel Under External Pressure Only 340 16.7 Vessel Under External Pressure and External Loading 341 References 342 Bibliography 342 17 Vessels of Noncircular Cross Section 344 17.1 Types of Vessels 344 17.2 Rules in Codes 345 17.3 Openings in Vessels with Noncircular Cross Section 345 17.4 Ligament Efficiency for Constant-Diameter Openings 345 17.5 Ligament Efficiency for Multidiameter Openings Subject to Membrane Stress 349 17.6 Ligament Efficiency for Multidiameter Openings Subject to Bending Stress 350 17.7 Design Methods and Allowable Stresses 352 17.8 Basic Equations 353 17.9 Equations in the ASME Code, VIII-1 356 17.10 Design of Noncircular Vessels in Other Codes 360 17.10.1 Method of the British Code BS 1113 360 17.10.2 Method of the European Standards EN 12952 and EN 13445 360 17.11 Forces in Box Headers due to Internal Pressure 361 17.11.1 Square Headers 362 17.11.2 Rectangular Headers 362 References 364 Further Reading 364 18 Power Boilers 366 18.1 General 366 18.2 Materials 366 18.3 General Design Requirements 366 18.3.1 Allowable Stress Values 366 18.3.2 Cylinders under Internal Pressure 366 18.4 Formed Heads under Internal Pressure 368 18.5 Loadings on Structural Attachments 368 18.6 Watertube Boilers 369 18.6.1 Special Design Requirements and Rules 369 18.7 Firetube Boilers 373 18.7.1 Special Design Requirements and Rules 373 References 373 A Guide to ASME Code 375 B Sample of Heat-Exchanger Specification Sheet 383 C Sample of API Specification Sheets 387 D Sample of Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheets 393 E Sample Materials for Process Equipment 407 F Required Data for Material Approval in the ASME Code 411 G Procedure for Providing Data for Code Charts for External-Pressure Design 413 H Corrosion Charts 415 I Various ASME Design Equations 431 J Joint Efficiency Factors 433 K Simplified Curves for External Loading on Cylindrical Shells 445 L Conversion Tables 453 Index 455

About the Author

MAAN H. JAWAD, PHD is President of Global Engineering & Technology, consulting on boilers and pressure vessels for the power generation and petrochemical industries. He was Director of Engineering at the Nooter Corporation in St. Louis prior to retiring. He is a graduate of the University of Kansas and Iowa State University and a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He was awarded the ASME's J. Hall Taylor Medal in 1992 for major contributions to the advancement of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Technology. JAMES R. FARR (Deceased) was Manager of Codes and Regulation at the Babcock and Wilcox Company, a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He is a graduate of Purdue University and served on numerous National and International Committees on pressure vessels.

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