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Studies on Chemical Composition in New Genotypes of Indian Mustard
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Erucic acid and glucosinolate are the two major deterrents, respectively of oil and seed meal in oilseed brassica. Indian mustard oil is inferior in quality as it contains high amount of erucic acid (28.0-53.0%) and linolenic acid (8.5-22.7%) although it also contains linoleic (12.0-21.0%) and oleic acid (10.0-24.0%) which is nutritionally good. High erucic acid rapeseed oil (eg. Brassica campestris var. yellow sarson) is a preferred cooking medium for its pungency especially in the preparation of pickles, vegetables and fish items etc. in eastern India. Glucosinolates stay in the seed meal after extraction of oil and are broken down by the enzyme myrosinase into bitter tasting, toxic and goitrogenic compounds reducing the nutritive value and palatability of the meal and inhibit functioning of the thyroid gland of live-stocks. Now a days, the emphasis is to develop "double low" low erucic acid (<2%) and low glucosinolate (<30 u mole/g fat free meal) or "double zero" (0, 0) cultivars. Elimination of the major glucosinolates from Indian commercial cultivars is essential to increase the value of their seed meal as protein source and animal feed.
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