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Table of Contents

Section I: The Monograph.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1 Objective and Scope.- 1.2 Criteria for Literature Selection.- 1.3 Criteria for Assessing the Validity of Data.- 1.4 The Outline.- 1.5 References.- 2. Chemical and Physical Data.- 2.1 General Observations and Terminology.- 2.2 Chemical Names and Synonyms.- 2.2.1 Sucrose.- 2.2.2 D-Glucose.- 2.2.3 D-Fructose.- 2.3 Structural and Molecular Formulae and Molecular Weight.- 2.3.1 Sucrose.- 2.3.2 Glucose.- 2.3.3 Fructose.- 2.4 Chemical and Physical Properties of the Pure Substance.- 2.4.1 Sucrose.- Description.- Solubility.- Stability.- Identity and Specification Test.- 2.4.2 Glucose.- Description.- Solubility.- Stability.- Identity and Specification Test.- 2.4.3 Fructose.- Description.- Solubility.- Stability.- Identity and Specification Test.- 2.5 Codex Alimentarius Specifications.- 2.6 Identity and Purity Aspects.- 2.6.1 Degradation Products.- 2.6.2 Additives.- 2.6.3 Extraneous Materials.- 2.6.4 Pesticide Residues.- 2.7 References.- 3. Production, Uses and Occurrence of Sucrose.- 3.1 Production and Uses.- 3.1.1 Production.- 3.1.2 Uses.- 3.2 Occurrence.- 3.2.1 Natural Occurrence.- 3.2.2 Extracted Sucrose.- Technical Preparation of Sucrose from Sugar Cane.- Technical Preparation of Sucrose from Sugar Beets.- 3.2.3 Sucrose Content in Foods.- 3.2.4 Browning Reaction of Sucrose.- 3.3 Consumption Data.- 3.4 References.- 4. Metabolism and Kinetics.- 4.1 Sucrose.- 4.1.1 Digestion.- 4.1.2 Absorption and Transport.- 4.1.3 Sucrose as Energy Source.- 4.2 Glucose.- 4.2.1 Metabolism.- Breakdown to Pyruvic Acid/Lactic Acid.- Pentose Phosphate Cycle (Phosphogluconate Pathway).- Glycogen Formation.- 4.3 Fructose.- 4.3.1 Absorption.- 4.3.2 Transport.- 4.3.3 Metabolic Pathway of Fructose in the Liver.- Phosphorylation of Fructose.- Splitting of Fructose-1-Phosphate.- Metabolism of D-Glyceraldehyde.- Fate of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate.- 4.3.4 Metabolism of Fructose in Other Tissues.- 4.3.5 End-Products of Fructose Metabolism.- 4.3.6 Accumulation of Fructose Metabolites.- 4.4 References.- 5. Biochemical Aspects.- 5.1 Sucrose.- 5.1.1 Effects of Plasma Constituents.- Plasma Glucose.- Plasma Lipids.- Plasma Insulin.- Plasma Lactate, Pyruvate, and Urate Levels.- 5.1.2 Effects on Lipogenesis.- Hepatic Lipogenesis.- Non-hepatic Lipogenesis.- 5.1.3 Effects on Cell Components.- 5.1.4 Effects on Mineral Metabolism.- 5.1.5 Effects of Sex Difference.- 5.1.6 Effects of Exercise.- 5.2 Fructose.- 5.2.1 Effects on Plasma Constituents.- 5.2.2 Effects on Lipogenesis.- 5.2.3 Effects on Adenine Nucleotides and Muscle Glycogen.- 5.2.4 Fructose and Lactic Acidosis.- 5.2.5 Effects on the Kidney.- 5.3 References.- 6. Health Aspects.- 6.1 Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose.- 6.1.1 Diabetes.- 6.1.2 Obesity.- 6.1.3 Oral and Dental Effects.- 6.1.4 Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease.- 6.1.5 Renal Effects.- 6.1.6 Blood Pressure.- 6.1.7 Wound Healing.- 6.1.8 Gastrointestinal Function.- 6.1.9 Behaviour and Nervous System Changes.- 6.1.10 Sucrose Intolerance.- 6.2 General Reviews on Health Aspects of Sucrose.- 6.3 References.- 7. Safety Aspects.- 7.1 General Observations.- 7.2 Acute Exposure.- 7.2.1 Oral.- 7.2.2 Parenteral.- 7.2.3 Factors Affecting Toxicity.- 7.2.4 Comparative Toxicity.- Sugar and Drugs.- Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose.- 7.3 Prolonged Administration.- 7.3.1 General Observations.- 7.3.2 Sucrose as a Component of Animal Diets.- 7.3.3 Sucrose as a Comparative Control.- 7.3.4 Prolonged Administration/Carcinogenicity.- Oral Administration.- Parenteral Administration.- Tumour Promotion.- Human Studies.- 7.3.5 Reproductive Toxicity and Teratogenicity.- Reproduction.- Teratogenicity.- 7.4 Special Studies.- 7.4.1 Mutagenicity.- 7.4.2 Nephrocalcinosis.- 7.4.3 Life Span of Animals.- 7.4.4 Enzymatic Activity.- 7.5 References.- 8. Evaluations.- 8.1 Dental Caries.- 8.2 Obesity.- 8.3 Cardiovascular Disease.- 8.4 Diabetes.- 8.5 Glucose Tolerance.- 8.6 Cancer.- 8.7 Gallstones.- 8.8 Urinary Tract Stones.- 8.9 Influence on Behaviour.- 8.10 Various Other Health Issues.- 8.11 Overall Assessment.- 8.12 References.- 9. Conclusions and Recommendations.- 9.1 References.- Section II: Bibliography.- Selected References.- Selected Books.

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