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This volume presents an objective state-of-the-art synopsis of the sucrose literature. Of its two main sections one is monographic and covers topics such as chemical and physical data on sucrose and its two major components (glucose and fructose), production, use, occurrence, metabolism and kinetics in animals and man, biochemical, health and safety aspects. The second section contains a bibliography of virtually all the significant works relating to the nutritional and safety aspects of sucrose.
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Table of Contents

Section I: The Monograph.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1 Objective and Scope.- 1.2 Criteria for Literature Selection.- 1.3 Criteria for Assessing the Validity of Data.- 1.4 The Outline.- 1.5 References.- 2. Chemical and Physical Data.- 2.1 General Observations and Terminology.- 2.2 Chemical Names and Synonyms.- 2.2.1 Sucrose.- 2.2.2 D-Glucose.- 2.2.3 D-Fructose.- 2.3 Structural and Molecular Formulae and Molecular Weight.- 2.3.1 Sucrose.- 2.3.2 Glucose.- 2.3.3 Fructose.- 2.4 Chemical and Physical Properties of the Pure Substance.- 2.4.1 Sucrose.- 2.4.1.1 Description.- 2.4.1.2 Solubility.- 2.4.1.3 Stability.- 2.4.1.4 Identity and Specification Test.- 2.4.2 Glucose.- 2.4.2.1 Description.- 2.4.2.2 Solubility.- 2.4.2.3 Stability.- 2.4.2.4 Identity and Specification Test.- 2.4.3 Fructose.- 2.4.3.1 Description.- 2.4.3.2 Solubility.- 2.4.3.3 Stability.- 2.4.3.4 Identity and Specification Test.- 2.5 Codex Alimentarius Specifications.- 2.6 Identity and Purity Aspects.- 2.6.1 Degradation Products.- 2.6.2 Additives.- 2.6.3 Extraneous Materials.- 2.6.4 Pesticide Residues.- 2.7 References.- 3. Production, Uses and Occurrence of Sucrose.- 3.1 Production and Uses.- 3.1.1 Production.- 3.1.2 Uses.- 3.2 Occurrence.- 3.2.1 Natural Occurrence.- 3.2.2 Extracted Sucrose.- 3.2.2.1 Technical Preparation of Sucrose from Sugar Cane.- 3.2.2.2 Technical Preparation of Sucrose from Sugar Beets.- 3.2.3 Sucrose Content in Foods.- 3.2.4 Browning Reaction of Sucrose.- 3.3 Consumption Data.- 3.4 References.- 4. Metabolism and Kinetics.- 4.1 Sucrose.- 4.1.1 Digestion.- 4.1.2 Absorption and Transport.- 4.1.3 Sucrose as Energy Source.- 4.2 Glucose.- 4.2.1 Metabolism.- 4.2.1.1 Breakdown to Pyruvic Acid/Lactic Acid.- 4.2.1.2 Pentose Phosphate Cycle (Phosphogluconate Pathway).- 4.2.1.3 Glycogen Formation.- 4.3 Fructose.- 4.3.1 Absorption.- 4.3.2 Transport.- 4.3.3 Metabolic Pathway of Fructose in the Liver.- 4.3.3.1 Phosphorylation of Fructose.- 4.3.3.2 Splitting of Fructose-1-Phosphate.- 4.3.3.3 Metabolism of D-Glyceraldehyde.- 4.3.3.4 Fate of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate.- 4.3.4 Metabolism of Fructose in Other Tissues.- 4.3.5 End-Products of Fructose Metabolism.- 4.3.6 Accumulation of Fructose Metabolites.- 4.4 References.- 5. Biochemical Aspects.- 5.1 Sucrose.- 5.1.1 Effects of Plasma Constituents.- 5.1.1.1 Plasma Glucose.- 5.1.1.2 Plasma Lipids.- 5.1.1.3 Plasma Insulin.- 5.1.1.4 Plasma Lactate, Pyruvate, and Urate Levels.- 5.1.2 Effects on Lipogenesis.- 5.1.2.1 Hepatic Lipogenesis.- 5.1.2.2 Non-hepatic Lipogenesis.- 5.1.3 Effects on Cell Components.- 5.1.4 Effects on Mineral Metabolism.- 5.1.5 Effects of Sex Difference.- 5.1.6 Effects of Exercise.- 5.2 Fructose.- 5.2.1 Effects on Plasma Constituents.- 5.2.2 Effects on Lipogenesis.- 5.2.3 Effects on Adenine Nucleotides and Muscle Glycogen.- 5.2.4 Fructose and Lactic Acidosis.- 5.2.5 Effects on the Kidney.- 5.3 References.- 6. Health Aspects.- 6.1 Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose.- 6.1.1 Diabetes.- 6.1.2 Obesity.- 6.1.3 Oral and Dental Effects.- 6.1.4 Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease.- 6.1.5 Renal Effects.- 6.1.6 Blood Pressure.- 6.1.7 Wound Healing.- 6.1.8 Gastrointestinal Function.- 6.1.9 Behaviour and Nervous System Changes.- 6.1.10 Sucrose Intolerance.- 6.2 General Reviews on Health Aspects of Sucrose.- 6.3 References.- 7. Safety Aspects.- 7.1 General Observations.- 7.2 Acute Exposure.- 7.2.1 Oral.- 7.2.2 Parenteral.- 7.2.3 Factors Affecting Toxicity.- 7.2.4 Comparative Toxicity.- 7.2.4.1 Sugar and Drugs.- 7.2.4.2 Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose.- 7.3 Prolonged Administration.- 7.3.1 General Observations.- 7.3.2 Sucrose as a Component of Animal Diets.- 7.3.3 Sucrose as a Comparative Control.- 7.3.4 Prolonged Administration/Carcinogenicity.- 7.3.4.1 Oral Administration.- 7.3.4.2 Parenteral Administration.- 7.3.4.3 Tumour Promotion.- 7.3.4.4 Human Studies.- 7.3.5 Reproductive Toxicity and Teratogenicity.- 7.3.5.1 Reproduction.- 7.3.5.2 Teratogenicity.- 7.4 Special Studies.- 7.4.1 Mutagenicity.- 7.4.2 Nephrocalcinosis.- 7.4.3 Life Span of Animals.- 7.4.4 Enzymatic Activity.- 7.5 References.- 8. Evaluations.- 8.1 Dental Caries.- 8.2 Obesity.- 8.3 Cardiovascular Disease.- 8.4 Diabetes.- 8.5 Glucose Tolerance.- 8.6 Cancer.- 8.7 Gallstones.- 8.8 Urinary Tract Stones.- 8.9 Influence on Behaviour.- 8.10 Various Other Health Issues.- 8.11 Overall Assessment.- 8.12 References.- 9. Conclusions and Recommendations.- 9.1 References.- Section II: Bibliography.- Selected References.- Selected Books.

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