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System Safety Engineering and Risk Assessment


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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition

Why Do We Need Safety Engineering?
What Is Safety Analysis?
System Safety and Risk Assessment
Government Safety Regulations versus Safety from Industry's Point of View
Brief History of Safety
Further Reading

Definitions and Concepts
Makeup of an Accident
How Safe Is Safe Enough?
Case Study: Black Swan Extreme Events, Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
The Accident
What Went Wrong?
Media Nightmare
Lessons Learned of What Could Have Been Done Differently
What Is a Hazard and Other Important Concepts
System Safety versus Safety Management System
System Safety Process
Hazard Identification
Hazard Control
Risk Acceptance
Risk Management versus Safety Management
Hazard Reduction Precedence
Design Out the Hazard
Safety Devices
Warning Devices
Special Procedures and Training
Safety Maturity Model and Safety Management Systems
Leading and Lagging Safety Performance Indicators
Use of Standards in Safety
Government Standards
Industry Standards
Regional Standards, Example: Interoperability in the European Union
International Standards
Further Reading

Safety Analysis in Engineering: How Is It Used?
Consumer Products
Chemical Process and Oil and Gas Industry
Mass Transit
Military and Space
Commercial Nuclear Power
Further Reading

Safety Management Systems
Safety in the System Life Cycle
System Life Cycle
Safety and the System Life Cycle
Case Studies of Poor Application of Safety in the System Life Cycle
Developing a Robust Safety Management System
Elements of a Safety Management System
Conducting a Diagnostic of Your Safety Management System
Organizational Management and Safety
Management Commitment
Suggested Ideas to Enhance Management Involvement
Safety Management System Organization
System Safety Program: Keystone to a Robust Safety Management System
Elements of a System Safety Program
Setting Up a System Safety Program
Evaluating Contractors and Subcontractors
Emergency Preparedness Programs
Case Study: How a Leading Global Personal Care Products Company Created a Best Practice Safety Program
Common Mistakes in Implementing Safety Programs
Closed-Loop Process
Hazard Tracking and Resolution
System Safety Reviews and Audits
Case Study: Special Commission of Inquiry, Waterfall Rail Accident Safety Management System Audit
Some Words on Safety Governance
Voluntary Protection Program
Safety Culture
What Is Safety Culture?
Measuring Safety Culture
Designing Sustainable Safety Culture: Fitting a Global Company's Corporate Safety Program into the Local Culture
Further Reading

Hazard Analysis
Hazard Analysis Methodology
Preliminary Hazard List
Passenger-Carrying Submersible Example
Hazard Analysis: Preliminary, Subsystem, and System
Facility Hazard Analysis
Operations and Support Hazard Analysis
Examples of Hazard Analyses
Example Hazard Analysis of NASA Laser
Brief Example of a Hazardous Waste Storage Facility Hazard Analysis
Further Reading

Process Safety Analysis
Process Hazard Analysis
What-If Analysis and Safety Checklists
Brief HAZOP Example of an Ammonia Fill Station
Example What-If/Safety Checklist for Pressure Test Equipment
Further Reading

Fault Tree Analysis
Fault Tree Symbols and Logic
Finding Cut Sets
Fault Tree Quantification
Example of a Fault Tree Construction of a Motor-Pump Pressure System
Common Mistakes in Fault Trees
Further Reading

FMECA, Human Factors, and Software Safety
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
Conducting a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis
Human Factors Safety Analysis
Performance and Human Error
Conducting Human Factors Safety Analysis
Brief Example of Human Factors Safety Analysis: Manual Switchover to Auxiliary Feedwater System
Software Safety
Software Safety Analysis
Software Testing and IV&V
Further Reading

Other Techniques
Energy Trace Barrier Analysis
Sneak Circuit Analysis
Cause-Consequence Analysis
Root Cause Analysis
Bow Tie Analysis
Dispersion Modeling
Test Safety
Comparing the Various Techniques
Advantages and Disadvantages
Further Reading

Data Sources and Training
Government Data Banks
Industry Data Banks
Creating Your Own Safety Knowledge Management System: Some Suggestions
Safety Training
Employee Safety Training
Emergency Preparedness and Response Training
Personnel Certification for Hazardous Operations
Sample Safety Training Course Outline for a Microprocessor Production Plant
Safety Awareness Training
Further Reading

Accident Reporting, Investigation, Documentation, and Communication
Anatomy of an Accident
Accident Investigation Board
Reporting the Accident
Setting Up a Closed-Loop Reporting System
Example of an Automated System
Forming an Investigation Board
Selecting the Investigation Board
Conducting the Investigation
Investigation Report
Documenting the Accident
Retention of Records
Public Release of Information
Accident Investigation Lessons Learned
Communicating the Accident to the Public
Developing a Crisis Communication Plan
Common Mistakes: What Not to Say and Do
Further Reading

Government Regulations and Safety Oversight
Safety Regulatory Oversight
Key Components of a Safety Regulatory Regime
Description of Different Regulatory Oversight Models
Case Study: Setting Up a Safety Oversight Body from Scratch
Safety Oversight Functions and Governance
More Effective Safety Service Delivery
Safety Oversight Organization Options
Sample Safety Oversight Organization
Example Process Safety Oversight in the United
Aligning Resource Needs to the Oversight Organization: How to Do More with Less
Case Study: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Improving Oversight through System Safety
Common Mistakes in Government Oversight Programs
Further Reading

Risk Assessment
What Is Risk?
Risk Perception
Risk Assessment Methodology
Identifying Risk in a System
Risk Communication
Further Reading

Risk Evaluation
Probabilistic Approach
Risk Analysis Model
Developing Accident Scenarios and Initiating Events
Event Trees
Consequences Determination
Risk Evaluation: The Use of Risk Profiles
Calculating Safety Costs
Brief Example: Risk Assessment of Launching a Space Shuttle Payload
Further Reading

Appendix A: Typical Energy Sources
Appendix B: Generic Hazard Checklist
Appendix C: Generic Facility Safety Checklist
Appendix D: Internet Sources

About the Author

Nicholas J. Bahr is an internationally recognized expert in system safety, risk assessment, and enterprise risk management systems and has over 25 years of professional experience working around the world. He has set up safety management systems for companies and helped governments improve their safety oversight programs. Over his career, Mr. Bahr has conducted programs for commercial and government clients, detailed technical risk assessments, implemented enterprise risk management business processes, and developed regulatory oversight programs throughout the United States, United Kingdom, Europe, South America, Australia, the Middle East, and North Africa. His diverse experience and background covers many industries including aerospace, utilities, oil and gas, manufacturing, and transportation. After a high-profile rail accident in Australia, Mr. Bahr was asked to lead an international team conducting a safety management systems audit of both the regulator and the railway. The audit methodology is now considered the new international gold standard for safety management systems. His client engagements range from risk strategy for senior government and commercial executives, to detailed risk assessments for front-line management. He has helped CEOs, senior VPs, and senior government officials realize tangible and sustainable benefits from their safety and risk management programs. Mr. Bahr is a past U.S. delegate to various standards writing bodies. Currently, Mr. Bahr is a principal at Booz Allen Hamilton and is the regional manager for the Middle East and North Africa.


"I found Nick's chapters on Safety Management Systems and Government Regulations and Safety Oversight, to be very comprehensive, insightful and informative. As a practicing occupational health and safety regulator and a previous transport safety regulator, I will certainly keep Nick's second edition on my book shelf as a ready reference, just as I do with his first edition."
-Len Neist, Health & Safety Regulator, Australia

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