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Systems Engineering and Analysis

For senior-level undergraduate and first and second year graduate systems engineering and related courses. Systems Engineering and Analysis, 5/e, provides a total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. This practical introduction to systems engineering and analysis provides the concepts, methodologies, models, and tools needed to understand and implement a total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. The authors focus first on the process of bringing systems into being-beginning with the identification of a need and extending that need through requirements determination, functional analysis and allocation, design synthesis, evaluation, and validation, operation and support, phase-out, and disposal. Next, the authors discuss the improvement of systems currently in being, showing that by employing the iterative process of analysis, evaluation, feedback, and modification, most systems in existence can be improved in their affordability, effectiveness, and stakeholder satisfaction.
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Table of Contents

ContentsPreface xiiiPart I Introduction to Systems 1Chapter 1 Systems Science and Engineering 21.1 System Definitions and Elements 31.2 Classification of Systems 51.3 Science and Systems Science 81.4 Technology and Technical Systems 111.5 Transition to the Systems Age 131.6 Systems Engineering 171.7 Summary and Extensions 19Questions and Problems 21Chapter 2 Bringing Systems Into Being 232.1 The Engineered System 242.2 System Life-Cycle Engineering 292.3 The Systems Engineering Process 332.4 System Design Considerations 352.5 System Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation 412.6 Implementing Systems Engineering 462.7 Summary and Extensions 51Questions and Problems 52Part II The System Design Process 55Chapter 3 Conceptual System Design 563.1 Problem Definition and Need Identification 573.2 Advanced System Planning and Architecting 583.3 System Design and Feasibility Analysis 603.4 System Operational Requirements 613.5 System Maintenance and Suppor 763.6 Technical Performance Measures 823.7 Functional Analysis and Allocation 863.8 System Trade-off Analyses 933.9 System Specification 953.10 Conceptual Design Review 953.11 Summary and Extensions 97Questions and Problems 98Chapter 4 Preliminary System Design 1004.1 Preliminary Design Requirements 1014.2 Development, Product, Process, and Material Specifications 1024.3 Functional Analysis and Allocation (Subsystem) 1044.4 Preliminary Design Criteria 1124.5 Design Engineering Activities 1144.6 Engineering Design Tools and Technologies 1174.7 Trade-off Studies and Design Definition 1204.8 Design Review, Evaluation, and Feedback 1234.9 Summary and Extensions 125Questions and Problems 126Chapter 5 Detail Design and Development 1285.1 Detail Design Requirements 1295.2 The Evolution of Detail Design 1305.3 Integrating System Elements and Activities 1345.4 Design Tools and Aids 1365.5 Design Data, Information, and Integration 1375.6 Development of Engineering Models 1395.7 System Prototype Development 1425.8 Design Review, Evaluation, and Feedback 1425.9 Incorporating Design Changes 1465.10 Summary and Extensions 147Questions and Problems 148Chapter 6 System Test, Evaluation, and Validation 1506.1 The Process of System Test, Evaluation, and Validation 1516.2 Categories of System Test and Evaluation 1536.3 Planning for System Test and Evaluation 1576.4 Preparation for System Test and Evaluation 1606.5 System Test, Data Collection, Reporting, and Feedback 1626.6 Summary and Extensions 166Questions and Problems 167Part III Systems Analysis and Design Evaluation 169Chapter 7 Alternatives and Models in Decision Making 1707.1 Alternatives in Decision Making 1717.2 Models in Decision Making 1727.3 Decision Evaluation Theory 1767.4 Decisions Involving Multiple Criteria 1817.5 The Decision Evaluation Display 1877.6 Decisions Under Risk and Uncertainty 1887.7 Summary and Extensions 197Questions and Problems 199Chapter 8 Models For Economic Evaluation 2048.1 Interest and Interest Formulas 2058.2 Determining Economic Equivalence 2108.3 Evaluating a Single Alternative 2138.4 Evaluating Multiple Alternatives 2218.5 Evaluation Involving Multiple Criteria 2238.6 Multiple Alternatives with Multiple Futures 2248.7 Break-Even Economic Evaluations 2278.8 Break-Even Evaluation Under Risk 2328.9 Summary and Extensions 234Questions and Problems 234Chapter 9 Optimization in Design and Operations 2399.1 Classical Optimization Theory 2409.2 Unconstrained Classical Optimization 2469.3 Constrained Classical Optimization 2679.4 Optimization Involving Multiple Criteria 2729.5 Constrained Optimization by Linear Programming 2749.6 Summary and Extensions 283Questions and Problems 284Chapter 10 Queuing Theory and Analysis 28910.1 The Queuing System 29010.2 Monte Carlo Analysis of Queuing 29310.3 Single-Channel Queuing Models 29610.4 Multiple-Channel Queuing Models 30510.5 Queuing with Nonexponential Service 30810.6 Finite Population Queuing Models 31110.7 Summary and Extensions 318Questions and Problems 319Chapter 11 Control Concepts and Methods 32211.1 Some Basic Control Concepts 32311.2 Statistical Process Control 32511.3 Statistical Control Charts 32711.4 Optimum Policy Control 33711.5 Project Control with CPM and PERT 34011.6 Total Quality Control 35011.7 Summary and Extensions 353Questions and Problems 354Part IV Design for Operational Feasibility 361Chapter 12 Design for Reliability 36212.1 Definition and Explanation of Reliability 36312.2 Measures of Reliability 36412.3 Reliability in the System Life Cycle 37412.4 Reliability Analysis Methods 38512.5 Reliability Test and Evaluation 39612.6 Summary and Extensions 404Questions and Problems 404Chapter 13 Design for Maintainability 41013.1 Definition and Explanation of Maintainability 41113.2 Measures of Maintainability 41213.3 Availability and Effectiveness Measures 42613.4 Maintainability in the System Life Cycle 42913.5 Maintainability Analysis Methods 43613.6 Maintainability Demonstration 45713.7 Summary and Extensions 463Questions and Problems 464Chapter 14 Design For Usability (Human Factors) 46814.1 Definition and Explanation of Human Factors 46914.2 The Measures in Human Factors 48114.3 Human Factors in the System Life Cycle 48214.4 Human Factors Analysis Methods 48614.5 Personnel and Training Requirements 49214.6 Personnel Test and Evaluation 49414.7 Summary and Extensions 494Questions and Problems 495Chapter 15 Design for Logistics and Supportability 49715.1 Definition and Explanation of Logistics and Supportability 49815.2 Logistics in the System-of-Systems Environmen 50315.3 The Elements of Logistics and System Support 50315.4 The Measures of Logistics and Supportability 50715.5 Logistics and Maintenance Support in the System Life Cycle 52615.6 Supportability Analysis 53215.7 Supportability Test and Evaluation 53515.8 Summary and Extensions 537Questions and Problems 538Chapter 16 Design for Producibility, Disposability, and Sustainability 54116.1 Introducing Producibility,Disposability, and Sustainability 54216.2 Producibility,Disposability, and Sustainability in the Life Cycle 54516.3 Measures of Producibility and Production Progress 54716.4 Design for Producibility 55216.5 Design for Disposability 55616.6 Design for Sustainability 55816.7 Life-Cycle Value-Cost Diagram 56016.8 Summary and Extensions 562Questions and Problems 564Chapter 17 Design for Affordability (Life-cycle Costing) 56617.1 Introduction to Life-Cycle Costing 56717.2 Cost Considerations Over the System Life Cycle 57017.3 A Generic Life-Cycle Costing Process 57417.4 Life-Cycle Costing by Money Flow Modeling 59117.5 Life-Cycle Costing by Economic Optimization 61617.6 Applications and Benefits of Life-Cycle Costing 62817.7 Summary and Extensions 630Questions and Problems 631Part V Systems Engineering Management 639Chapter 18 Systems Engineering Planning and Organization 64018.1 Systems Engineering Program Planning 64118.2 Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) 64318.3 Organization for Systems Engineering 65818.4 Summary and Extensions 671Questions and Problems 672Chapter 19 Program Management, Control, and Evaluation 67419.1 Organizational Goals and Objectives 67519.2 Outsourcing and the Identification of Suppliers 67619.3 Program Leadership and Direction 68019.4 Program Evaluation and Feedback 68119.5 Risk Management 69019.6 Summary and Extensions 692Questions and Problems 694Part VI Appendices 697Appendix A Functional Analysis 699A.1 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 699A.2 Some Examples of Application 701Appendix B Design and Management Checklists 709B.1 Design Review Checklist 709B.2 Management Review Checklist 711Appendix C Probability Theory and Analysis 715C.1 Probability Concepts and Theory 715C.2 Probability Distribution Models 718C.3 Monte Carlo Analysis 726Appendix D Probability and Statistical Tables 729Table D.1 Random Rectangular Variates 729Table D.2 Cumulative Poisson Probabilities 729Table D.3 Cumulative Normal Probabilities 729Appendix E Interest Factor Tables 737Tables E.1 to E.8 Interest Factors for Annual Compounding 737Appendix F Finite Queuing Tables 746Tables F.1 to F.3 Finite Queuing Factors 746Appendix G Selected Bibliography 755G.1 Systems, Systems Analysis, and Systems Engineering 755G.2 Concurrent and Simultaneous Engineering 757G.3 Software and Computer-Based Systems 757G.4 Reliability Engineering 758G.5 Maintainability Engineering and Maintenance 759G.6 Human Factors and Safety Engineering 760G.7 Production, Manufacturing, and Quality Assurance 760G.8 Logistics, Supply Chain, Supportability, and Sustainability 761G.9 Operations Research and Operations Management 762G.10 Engineering Economics and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis 763G.11 Management and Supporting Areas 763Appendix H Selected Websites 765Index

About the Author

Benjamin S. Blanchard served in the U.S. Air Force for several years during the Korean conflict; spent 17+ years in industry as a design engineer, field service engineer, and engineering manager (Boeing, Sanders Associates, Bendix, and General Dynamics); taught reliability and maintainability courses as an Adjunct Professor, Rochester Institute of Technology (1967-1969); employed at Virginia Tech as Director of Engineering Extension and Assistant Dean of Engineering for Public Service (1970-1997); Chaired Graduate Program in Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech (1979-1997); served as a Visiting Professor at the University of Exeter, UK, teaching logistics engineering courses (1989-1996); served as an Adjunct Professor, University of Virginia, teaching systems engineering (2001); taught courses in systems engineering and logistics engineering at Virginia Tech (1971-2004); served as Professor of Systems Engineering, Portland State University, and taught courses in systems and logistics engineering via the internet (1999-2004); and conducted training programs, seminars, and workshops in systems engineering, logistics, maintenance, and life-cycle costing in 34 different countries (1972-2002). In addition, he has authored and/or co-authored nine different books and a number of monographs, book chapters, and technical papers in systems engineering, logistics engineering, maintainability and maintenance, and life-cycle costing.Wolter J. Fabrycky - Lawrence Professor Emeritus of Industrial and Systems Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Registered Professional Engineer in both Arkansas and Virginia, and Chairman of Academic Applications International, Inc. Fabrycky taught at the University of Arkansas and then Oklahoma State University before becoming Founding Chairman of the Interdisciplinary Systems Engineering Graduate Program, Associate Dean of Engineering, and then Dean of Research, all at Virginia Tech. He is a Fellow in AAAS, ASEE, IIE, and INCOSE. An INCOSE Charter Member, Fabrycky was designated a SE Pioneer (with Ben Blanchard) in 2000. Fabrycky is Founder and President of Omega Alpha, the International Honor Society for Systems Engineering and President Elect of Alpha Pi Mu, the Industrial Engineering Honor Society. He serves or served on the National Boards of APM, ASEE, IIE, INCOSE, and OAA. Received the Distinguished Educator Award from IIE, the Grant and Wellington Awards from ASEE and IIE, and the Lohmann Medal from Oklahoma State. Fabrycky was named a member of the 1978 Engineering Education Delegation to the People's Republic of China, sponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the PRC. Co-author of six Prentice Hall textbooks and co-editor (with Joe Mize since 1972) of the Prentice Hall International Series in Industrial and Systems Engineering that includes more than 40 titles.


"This text is the most complete, most thorough, and the most systematic textbook on the subject of Systems Engineering. The textbook is presenting materials in a proper and sequential manner and it is not jumping from topic to topic."-Lili H. Tabrizi, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY "This is, without a doubt, the definitive text on systems engineering. It provides a comprehensive coverage of the field, considering both the design and analysis of complex systems."-Stanley F. Bullington, MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY "The clean coverage of individual topics makes it easier to address needs of students both in our regular graduate course and to supplement short courses. The book serves as an excellent quick reference guide."-Paul Componation, THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN HUNTSVILLE

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