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Smoking and Health Global Tobacco Epidemic Smoke-Related Diseases Smoke Constituents of Concern Biomarkers Biomarkers of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Biomarkers Application in Tobacco Regulation and Healthy Policy References Biomonitoring and Biomarkers Introduction Preparation of Samples of Biological Materials Methodology of Determination of Biomarkers Biomarkers in Tissues and Body Fluids Conclusions References Biomarkers of Pyridine Alkaloids: Nicotine and Cotinine Introduction Toxicological Evaluation Metabolic Pathway of Nicotine in the Body Samples Used Analytical Technology Metabolites of Nicotine Application of Nicotine Biomarkers on Biomonitor References Biomarkers of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines Introduction NNK N-Nitrosonornicotine TSNA Biomarkers in Others References Biomarkers of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Introduction PAHs and PAH Exposure and Carcinogenesis Enzymes of Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of PAHs Biomonitoring PAH and Their Metabolites in Human Urine PAH Biomarkers in Others Discussion Conclusion References Biomarkers of Volatile Organic Compounds Introduction Toxicological Evaluation Metabolic Pathway in the Body Discussion Conclusion References Aromatic Amines Introduction ABP NA Discussion Conclusion References Biomarkers of Catechol and Hydroquinone Introduction Toxicological Evaluation Biodegradation and Metabolism Biomarkers of Hydroquinone and Catechol References Biomarkers of HCN, CO, and NOx Exposure Introduction Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Oxides Discussion Conclusion References Biomarkers of Heavy Metal Exposure Introduction Metabolism Pathway Cadmium Arsenic Mercury Lead Discussion Conclusion References Application of Smoke Exposure Biomarker in Epidemiologic Research Smoke Exposure Biomarker and Health Effects Application of Smoke Exposure Biomarker in Epidemiologic Research References Suggestions for the Use of Specific Biomarkers of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke for Regulation Purposes Background Measuring Exposure Measuring Biological Changes Measuring Injury and Disease Recommended Uses for Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect Measuring Reduced Injury or Harm Summary of Biomarker Recommendations A: Guideline Document for Ethics Review Concerning Research Involving Intervention on Humans by the European Commission B: Declaration of Helsinki (V2008) Protection of Animals Used for Scientific Purposes Guidance for Industry-Bioanalytical Method Validation by the Food and Drug Administration E: Toxicity and IARC Classification of Targeted Constitutes
Dr Qingyuan Hu is the sole representative of the People's Republic of China to the above mentioned working group. He has attended every Conference of the Parties to WHO/FCTC, from the First Session held in Geneva in 2006. At the Fourth Session, held in Punta del Este in 2010, the Guidelines for Implementation of WHO/FCTC articles 9 and 10 were adopted as "Partial" and "Provisional", as a number of sections were left "intentionally blank", for completion as evidence on tobacco product characteristics including smoke biomarker is generated step-by-step. At the Fifth Session, held in Seoul in 2012, a Background Analysis on addictiveness was presented, which Dr Hu made significant and substantial scientific contributions to. Dr Hu is also the sole representative of the People's Republic of China to the WHO Tobacco Laboratory Network (TobLabNet), which comprises 25 laboratories around the world including the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI), both founding members of TobLabNet. Among other tasks, TobLabNet Finally, Dr Hu is also the sole representative of the People's Republic of China to the Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg). TobReg is the designated scientific advisory body to WHO on all matters concerning tobacco smoke biomarker.