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Tourism and Ethnodevelopment
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Ethnodevelopment is a well-established concept in the field of development studies. Despite its relevance to tourism initiatives and processes in the Global South, it continues to be an underutilised concept in the field. This book bridges this gap, presenting an original conceptual framework to study the relationship between tourism and ethnodevelopment. It focuses on the processes of inclusion, empowerment, self-expression and self-determination to explore the effects of tourism initiatives on the identities, cultural resilience, livelihoods and economic opportunities of ethnic minority communities. Chapters explore a range of concepts and issues such as gender, authenticity, indigenous knowledge, tradition, the commodification of culture, community-based tourism, local entrepreneurship, cultural heritage, and tourism and the environment. Drawing on rich primary research conducted across South East Asia and South and Central America the book offers detailed evaluations of the successes and failures of various tourism policies and practices. This book makes a valuable contribution for students, scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike interested in tourism, development studies, geography and anthropology.
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Table of Contents

Introduction 1. Tourism and Ethnodevelopment: a Conceptual Introduction Victor T. King and Ismar Borges de Lima Part 1: Institutionalized Ethnic Tourism and Advances in Ethnodevelopment: Policies, Communities, Organizations 2. Development for whom? Tourism Used as a social Intervention for the Development of Indigenous/Rural Communities in Natural Protected Areas. Gerda Warnholtz and David Barkin 3. Territorial Management and Brazilian Public Policy for Ethnotourism in Indigenous Land: Pataxo Case in Bahia. Carlos Alfredo Ferraz de Oliveira, Ismar Borges de Lima and Marcia Teixeira Falcao, 4. Empowerment through community-based ecotourism in a globalised world: global-local nexus - Three Thai Villages as case study Nantira Pookhao, Robyn Bushell, Mary Hawkins and Russell Staiff 5. Environmental Stewardship, Indigenous Tourism Planning and the Fakcha Llakta Community: an Ethnic Endogenous Development Model in Otavalo, Imbabura, Ecuador Rolando Lomas Tapia, Carmen Trujillo and Ismar Borges de Lima 6. Missio-tourism amongst ethnic Karen in Thailand: A bridge to empowerment and self-determination or promotion of assistencialism? Shirley Worland 7. Empowerment, Participation and Barriers: Ethnic Minority Community-based Ecotourism Development in Laos PDR Eerang Park, Toulakham Phandanouvong, Phouvanh Xaysena and Sangkyun Kim Part 2: Ethnic entrepreneurship, Tourism and Ethnodevelopment 8. Indigenous Micro Tourism Businesses, Ethnodevelopment and NGOs: Projectitis in Lago Budi in Chile Ingeborg Nordbo 9. Understanding host community's experiences of creating small autochthonous tourism enterprises in Lombok, Indonesia Akhmad Saufi, Sacha Reid and Anoop Patiar 10. Community Entrepreneurship, Female Elite and Cultural Inheritance: Mosuo Women's Empowerment and Hand Weaving Factory Yang Ningdong and La Mingqing 11. Sami Indigenous Tourism Empowerment in the Nordic Countries through Labelling Systems: Strengthening Ethnic Enterprises and Activities Cecilia de Bernardi, Outi Kugapi and Monika Luthje Part 3: Empowerment approaches in Ethnic Tourism: Issues of Authenticity, Cultural Commodification and Environment, Gender. 12. Exotic Tourist, Ethnic Hosts: a Critical Approach to Tourism and Ethnodevelopment Tuhina Ganguly and Mike Grimshaw 13. The legacy of black people and dialectic inclusion-exclusion in the building of the cultural heritage of a tourist destination in Vale do Paraiba Clarissa Gagliardi and Rosana Bignami 14. Tourism in the Fond Gens Libre Indigenous Community in Saint Lucia: Examining Impacts and Empowerment Lorraine Nicholas and Brijesh Thapa 15. Enthnodevelopment in the Kalunga's Community-based Tourism: From a Past marked by Slavery to Ethnic Group Struggles for Empowerment and Recognition Thais Alves Marinho Conclusion 16. Tourism and Ethnodevelopment, the Advances in the Field: Concluding Highlights Victor T. King and Ismar Borges de Lima

About the Author

Ismar Borges de Lima is Professor of Regional Development and Population Studies at the Federal University of Southern and Southeastern Para (UNIFESSPA), Brazil. He is also Director of the International Foundation for Research on Science, Nature and Tourism, RECINATUR, Brazil and Member of MULTIAMAZON/UERR Lab for Research in the Amazonian Basin. He holds a PhD in Geography and Tourism from the University of Waikato, New Zealand, and has held positions as a postdoctoral researcher and Adjunct Lecturer at the School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Australia. Victor T. King is Emeritus Professor in the School of Languages, Cultures and Societies, University of Leeds, UK; Professorial Research Associate in the Centre of South East Asian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK; Adjunct Professor in the Center for Ethnic Studies and Development, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Thailand; and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in the Institute of Asian Studies, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei.

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