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Understanding Reading Problems


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Contents Preface chapter 1 Reading and Its Assessment Framing the Issues Reading Assessment Different Assessments for Different Phases of Instruction Approaches to Assessment The Process of Learning to Read at Different Stages Emergent Literacy Beginning Reading Fledgling Reading Developing Reading Mature Reading Differentiated Instruction Response to Intervention Summary References CHAPTER 2 Response To Intervention (RTI) and Struggling ReadersFrom a Discrepancy Model to Response to Intervention: The Origins of RTI Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997(IDEA) Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA) Response to Intervention (RTI) No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Reading FirstCharacteristics of RTI: What It Is, What It Isn'tRecommended Principles of RTI from the International Reading AssociationThe Multi-Tiered Structure of RTI Tier One: General Education Program Tier Two: Small-Group Intervention Tier Three: Intensive InterventionApproaches and Models for Implementing RTI Interactive Strategies Approach (ISA) Comprehensive Intervention Model (CIM)The Role of Assessment in RTI Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) (benchmark assessment) Diagnostic Assessment Progress Monitoring False PositivesEvidence-Based Literacy ProgramsMembers of the RTI Team and Their RolesRTI in Middle Schools and High Schools Middle Schools High SchoolsImplications of RTI for Special EducationEnglish Language Learners and RTIRTI and the GiftedThe Role of Technology in RTISummaryReference CHAPTER 3 Assessing and Teaching Emergent Readers Understanding Emergent Literacy Aspects of Emergent LiteracyAssessing Emerging Readers Assessing Print Concepts Alphabet Knowledge Assessing Alphabet Knowledge The Concept of Word Assessing the Concept of Word Phonological Awareness The Importance of Phonological Awareness Assessing Phonological Awareness Distinguishing Rhyming Words from Non-rhyming Words Producing Rhymes Phoneme Isolation Phoneme Comparison Phoneme Addition Phoneme Subtraction Phoneme Segmentation Assessing Phonemic Awareness by Means of Invented Spelling Oral Language Development Vocabulary Assessing Vocabulary Syntax, or Grammar Decontextualized Language Assessing for Knowledge of Decontextualized Language Narrative Comprehension Picture Walk Story Retelling Prompted Comprehension Widely Distributed Tests of Emergent LiteracyTeaching for Emergent Literacy Teaching Print Orientation Concepts Teaching the Alphabet Alphabet Books Letter-Matching Games Sounds and Letters Teaching the Concept of Word The Voice-Pointing Procedure Cut-Apart Words Dictated Experience Accounts Morning Message Teaching to Build Phonological Awareness At the Syllable Level At the Onset-and-Rime Level At the Phoneme Level Teaching for Many Things at Once Reading Storybooks Reading Many Books, Repeatedly Reading Expressively Shared Reading Conducting a Shared Reading Lesson Dialogic Reading Teaching to Nurture Vocabulary Development Teaching Decontextualized Language Storytelling for Comprehension Learning Stories to TellSummaryReferences CHAPTER 4: Assessing and Teaching Beginning and Fledgling Readers and Writers Components of Beginning and Fledgling Reading Word Recognition Sight Words High Frequency Sight Words Sight Words as Learned Words Word Recognition by Decoding Comprehension, the Ability to Derive Meaning from Text Reading FluencyAssessing Beginning and Fledgling Readers Running Records Running Records to Document Progress Running Records and Text Difficulty Further Assessments of Beginning and Fledgling Readers Assessing Knowledge of Sight Words Assessing Word Knowledge through Invented Spelling: The Monster Test Applying the Results of The Monster Test Assessing Word Knowledge By Means of Novel Words: DemtupInstruction for Beginning and Fledgling Readers Tutoring Lesson Writing Shared writing with individual children Interactive Writing With a Small Group Attention to Handwriting Word Study Sound Boards Making and Breaking Words Push It Say It Teaching High Frequency Words Reading aloud The Language Experience ApproachPlanning and Record KeepingSummaryReferences CHAPTER 5: Informal Assessments of ReadingInformal Reading InventoriesSelecting an Informal Reading Inventory Quality of Passages. Types of Text. Quality of Questions. Format and Instructions. Administering an Informal Reading Inventory Where to StartStarting with Word Lists. Starting with Passages. Where to StopStep-by-Step AdministrationReinspection and ComprehensionRetelling and ComprehensionMarking Oral Reading MiscuesAssessing Listening ComprehensionAssessing Recognition of Words in IsolationScoring an Informal Reading InventoryLevels of Reading AbilityThe Independent LevelThe Instructional LevelThe Frustration LevelThe Listening LevelThe Usefulness of Reading LevelsOral Reading AccuracyReading FluencyReading and Listening ComprehensionScoring the Word Recognition InventoryKeeping Track of ScoresInterpreting an Informal Reading InventoryEstablishing Reading and Listening LevelsQualitative Analysis of Oral Reading MiscuesComparing Miscues. Scoring Miscue Acceptability. What Makes a Miscue Acceptable? Dialects and Miscues. What about Names? Analyzing Reading ComprehensionComprehension Skill PatternsPatterns in Listening ComprehensionAnalyzing Word Recognition in IsolationObservations of Reading Behaviors and StrategiesObserving ReadersPhysical BehaviorsCognitive BehaviorsReading Strategies ObservedRecording ObservationsMonitoring Types and Difficulty of Texts ReadGuided Reading LevelsReadability EstimatesThe Fry Readability ChartLexilesCloze ProceduresConstructing a Cloze PassageAdministering a Cloze Passage Scoring and Interpreting a ClozeMaze TestsStudent PortfoliosShowcasing AchievementDocumenting ProgressDemonstrating EffortFostering Self-Evaluation and ReflectionKinds of PortfoliosOrganizing a Portfolio ProgramWhat Goes into a Portfolio?Primary GradesMiddle and Upper GradesEvaluating PortfoliosTeaching Self-EvaluationTeaching Goal SettingTeacher EvaluationsParent EvaluationsPortfolio ConferencesTeacher-Student ConferencesPeer ConferencesParent ConferencesMeasuring Attitudes and Interest in ReadingSummaryReferences CHAPTER 6: Teaching Developing ReadersPhonics And Word Knowledge For Developing Readers Word Knowledge At Different Levels Logographic Reading Transitional Alphabetic Reading Alphabetic Reading Orthographic Reading Derivational ReadingTeaching Phonics Word Study At More Advanced Levels Guiding Word Study Teaching Words With Shared Phonogram Patterns Teaching Words With Grammatical Affixes And Derivational Affixes Teaching Homophones And Homographs Developing Sight Vocabulary Dictated Stories and Language Experience Support Reading: Echo Reading and Choral Reading Developing Word Analysis Strategies Using Context Approaching Word Attack StrategicallyAssessing Reading FluencyDeveloping Reading Fluency Modeling Fluent Oral Reading Providing Oral Support For Reading Providing Practice In Oral Reading Repeated Reading For Fluency Predictable Books, "Easy Readers," And Other Easy Reading FareDeveloping Readers' Vocabulary Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge Dissecting Children's Vocabulary Approaches to Teaching Vocabulary Teaching the Use of Context Clues to VocabularyDeveloping Reading Comprehension For the Phase of Anticipation For the Phase of Building Knowledge For the Phase of ConsolidationDeveloping Listening ComprehensionTime Spent ReadingSummaryReferences CHAPTER 7: Assessing and Teaching Middle and Secondary School Readers and Writers The Reading and Writing Issues of Older Students Why Should We Be Concerned About Older Students' Reading and Writing Ability?Responding to the Needs of Readers and Writers in Middle and Secondary GradesA Range of Responses to Older Students' Reading and Writing Needs.Reading Strategies for Use Across the CurriculumStrategies for the Anticipation PhaseAdvance Organizers The Anticipation Guide Group Brainstorming Paired Brainstorming Terms In Advance Think/Pair/ShareFree WritingSemantic MapK now/Want to Know/Learn. Strategies for the Building Knowledge Phase The I.N.S.E.R.T. Model Text CodingStudy GuidesDual- Entry DiariesCooperative Learning: Jigsaw IIStrategies for the Reflection Phase The Discussion WebAcademic ControversyProviding Close Support for Students' Reading DevelopmentOrganizing Focused Strategic and Intensive InstructionAssessing Readers for Focused InstructionPlanning Lessons for Disabled ReadersTeaching Strategies to Build Reading Competence Thinking Aloud ReQuest Procedure VisualizingQuestioning the AuthorReading and QuestioningAudio BooksIntroducing and Focusing Attention on New VocabularyWord ConversationsVocab-o-gramWebbed Questions The Frayer ModelHelping Older Students WriteEleven Elements of Effective Adolescent Writing InstructionTeaching Writing Strategies and Teaching the Writing Process Approach. RehearsingDraftingRevisingEditing or ProofreadingPublishingFocused LessonsHaving Goals for WritingKeyboarding SkillWriting For Inquiry Ten- Minute Essays and Other Free Writes The Five- Minute EssayThree- Part Diaries The I-Search Paper Motivational and Emotional Issues of Adolescent Students with Reading ProblemsGuiding Principles and TheoriesEstablishing TrustProviding Literate Role ModelsReducing the Feeling of Learned Helplessness or Passive FailureLegitimizing Personal Knowledge and ExperiencesDeveloping a Learning EnvironmentSummaryReferences CHAPTER 8: Assessing Spelling and WritingMonitoring Spelling Progress and ProblemsDevelopmental Spelling Stages Early Emergent Stage Later Emergent Stage Letter-Name Stage Within-Word Pattern Stage Syllables and Affixes Stage Derivational Constancy StageAssessing Spelling Progress The Word Knowledge InventoryDevelopmental Spelling AnalysisThe Gentry Spelling Grade-Level TestMonitoring Writing ProgressWriting SamplesWriting ChecklistsSix Traits Writing EvaluationWriting Rubrics CHAPTER 9: Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse StudentsCulture and schoolingCultural differences in the mainstream classroom Conceptualizing literacy Communication styles Participation structures Task-engagement preferences Discourse organization Accommodating cultural differences in the mainstream classroomLinguistic differences in the mainstream classroom Languages and dialects The Ebonics debate Accommodating non-standard dialects in the mainstream classroom English language learners How does English compare to other languages? Phonology Morphology Syntax Pragmatics Writing systems Accommodating linguistic differences in the mainstream classroom How do people learn a second language? Supporting English language development in the mainstream classroom The role of the first language in second language and literacy development Including English Language Learners' first languages in the mainstream classroom Creating a multilingual classroom environment Translation Bilingual books Multilingual newslettersAssessment of culturally and linguistically diverse studentsInstructional suggestions Strategies for developing listening comprehension Strategies for developing phonemic awareness and phonics Strategies for developing reading fluency Strategies for developing vocabulary Developing reading comprehension Strategies for teaching grammar Strategies for developing awareness of text structure Strategies for supporting writing developmentSummaryList of figuresReferencesAppendix A CHAPTER 10: Understanding Formal Measures of Literacy AbilityUnderstanding Formal MeasuresCharacteristics Of TestsReliabilityValidityInterpreting Test ResultsDistributions Of Test ScoresMeasures Of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, And ModeMeasures Of Dispersion: Range And Standard DeviationForms Of Test ScoresNorm-Referenced TestsAchievement TestsDiagnostic TestsCriterion-Referenced TestsGoals And ObjectivesBenchmarks And RubricsState Standards And AssessmentSummaryReferences
Chapter 11 Factors Related to Reading Problems Philosophical and Legal Issues Related to Special-Needs Students Past Legislation Affecting Special-Needs Students IDEA 2004 and NCLB Student Participation in General Education Identifying Special-Needs Students Assessment of Special Educational Needs Intellectual Factors Tests of Intelligence and Learning Aptitude The Role of Experience Physical Factors Vision and Visual Problems Hearing and Auditory Problems Language Factors Language Acquisition and Difficulties in Infancy and Early Childhood Language Development and Difficulties in Preschool and Primary Grades Language Development and Difficulties in Later Childhood Special Learning Problems Learning Disabilities Dyslexia Designing Individualized Interventions Interventions for Phonological Awareness Interventions for Improving Fluency Summary References Index

About the Author

Jean Gillet has been an elementary reading specialist in central Virginia. She has also served as a classroom teacher, staff development specialist, and university educator. Her professional interests include the diagnosis and correction of reading difficulties, children's developmental spelling, and children's writing. Jean's extensive published work includes topics such as including contributing to classroom instructional materials on writing and spelling. The coauthor of several textbooks for teachers on language arts, reading, writing, and spelling, she received her doctorate from the University of Virginia. Charles Temple teaches courses in literacy and peace studies at Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva, New York. Dr. Temple studied with the late Edmund Henderson at the University of Virginia, where he explored reading instruction, reading disabilities, invented spelling, and what was to become emergent literacy. His published books cover such topics as emergent literacy, writing instruction, language arts, diagnosis and remediation of reading disabilities, and children's literature. He is a director of Critical Thinking International, Inc., a non-profit corporation that develops materials and fields mid-career professionals for teacher training around the world. CodrutaTemple taught English as a foreign language and was principal of a bilingual lyceum (high school) in Romania. She taught French as a Fulbright Scholar in California before moving permanently to the United States, where she earned a PhD. in English Education and linguistics at Syracuse University. Professor Temple now divides her time between teaching ESL methods and linguistics at New York State University College at Cortland and at Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva. Alan Crawford is Emeritus Professor of Education at California State University, Los Angeles. A Past President of the California Reading Association, he has done extensive teaching, consulting, and writing on teaching reading in the elementary school, especially for English language learners. Alan has written curriculum for teaching reading in Spanish and serves on the Editorial Review Board of Lectura y Vida. He served as IRA's representative to UNESCO for many years and was a Senior Literacy Specialist at UNESCO in Paris during International Literacy Year (1989-90). He is a director of Critical Thinking International and frequently presents workshops on a volunteer basis for international development projects in Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa


"The text provides invaluable information on how to assess as well as offer instruction to struggling readers ranging from emergent and beginning to older readers." Ioney James, North Carolina A & T State University

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