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Unix and Linux System Administration Handbook

"As an author, editor, and publisher, I never paid much attention to the competition-except in a few cases. This is one of those cases. The UNIX System Administration Handbook is one of the few books we ever measured ourselves against." -From the Foreword by Tim O'Reilly, founder of O'Reilly Media "This book is fun and functional as a desktop reference. If you use UNIX and Linux systems, you need this book in your short-reach library. It covers a bit of the systems' history but doesn't bloviate. It's just straightfoward information delivered in colorful and memorable fashion." -Jason A. Nunnelley"This is a comprehensive guide to the care and feeding of UNIX and Linux systems. The authors present the facts along with seasoned advice and real-world examples. Their perspective on the variations among systems is valuable for anyone who runs a heterogeneous computing facility." -Pat ParseghianThe twentieth anniversary edition of the world's best-selling UNIX system administration book has been made even better by adding coverage of the leading Linux distributions: Ubuntu, openSUSE, and RHEL. This book approaches system administration in a practical way and is an invaluable reference for both new administrators and experienced professionals. It details best practices for every facet of system administration, including storage management, network design and administration, email, web hosting, scripting, software configuration management, performance analysis, Windows interoperability, virtualization, DNS, security, management of IT service organizations, and much more. UNIX (R) and Linux (R) System Administration Handbook, Fourth Edition, reflects the current versions of these operating systems:Ubuntu (R) LinuxopenSUSE (R) LinuxRed Hat (R) Enterprise Linux (R)Oracle America (R) Solaris (TM) (formerly Sun Solaris)HP HP-UX (R)IBM AIX (R)
Product Details

Table of Contents

Foreword xliiPreface xlivAcknowledgments xlvi Section One: Basic Administration Chapter 1: Where to Start 3Essential duties of the system administrator 4Suggested background 6Friction between UNIX and Linux 7Linux distributions 9Example systems used in this book 10System-specific administration tools 13Notation and typographical conventions 13Units 14Man pages and other on-line documentation 16Other authoritative documentation 18Other sources of information 20Ways to find and install software 21System administration under duress 26Recommended reading 27Exercises 28 Chapter 2: Scripting and the Shell 29Shell basics 30bash scripting 37Regular expressions 48Perl programming 54Python scripting 66Scripting best practices 73Recommended reading 74Exercises 76 Chapter 3: Booting and Shutting Down 77Bootstrapping 78Booting PCs 82GRUB: The GRand Unified Boot loader 83Booting to single-user mode 86Working with startup scripts 87Booting Solaris 97Rebooting and shutting down 100Exercises 102 Chapter 4: Access Control and Rootly Powers 103Traditional UNIX access control 104Modern access control 106Real-world access control 110Pseudo-users other than root 118Exercises 119 Chapter 5: Controlling Processes 120Components of a process 120The life cycle of a process 123Signals 124kill: send signals 127Process states 128nice and renice: influence scheduling priority 129ps: monitor processes 130Dynamic monitoring with top, prstat, and topas 133The /proc filesystem 135strace, truss, and tusc: trace signals and system calls 136Runaway processes 138Recommended reading 139Exercises 139 Chapter 6: The Filesystem 140Pathnames 142Filesystem mounting and unmounting 143The organization of the file tree 145File types 147File attributes 152Access control lists 159Exercises 173 Chapter 7: Adding New Users 174The /etc/passwd file 176The /etc/shadow and /etc/security/passwd files 183The /etc/group file 186Adding users: the basic steps 187Adding users with useradd 191Adding users in bulk with newusers (Linux) 197Removing users 198Disabling logins 200Managing users with system-specific tools 201Reducing risk with PAM 201Centralizing account management 201Recommended reading 204Exercises 205 Chapter 8: Storage 206I just want to add a disk! 207Storage hardware 209Storage hardware interfaces 213Peeling the onion: the software side of storage 220Attachment and low-level management of drives 223Disk partitioning 231RAID: redundant arrays of inexpensive disks 237Logical volume management 246Filesystems 254ZFS: all your storage problems solved 264Storage area networking 274Exercises 281 Chapter 9: Periodic Processes 283cron: schedule commands 283The format of crontab files 284Crontab management 286Linux and Vixie-cron extensions 287Some common uses for cron 288Exercises 291 Chapter 10: Backups 292Motherhood and apple pie 293Backup devices and media 299Saving space and time with incremental backups 305Setting up a backup regime with dump 307Dumping and restoring for upgrades 314Using other archiving programs 315Using multiple files on a single tape 317Bacula 318Commercial backup products 335Recommended reading 337Exercises 337 Chapter 11: Syslog and Log Files 340Finding log files 341Syslog: the system event logger 344AIX logging and error handling 353logrotate: manage log files 356Condensing log files to useful information 358Logging policies 359Exercises 361 Chapter 12: Software Installation and Management 362Installing Linux and OpenSolaris 363Installing Solaris 370Installing HP-UX 377Installing AIX with the Network Installation Manager 380Managing packages 381Managing Linux packages 382Using high-level Linux package management systems 384Managing packages for UNIX 393Revision control 397Software localization and configuration 404Using configuration management tools 408Sharing software over NFS 411Recommended reading 413Exercises 414 Chapter 13: Drivers and the Kernel 415Kernel adaptation 416Drivers and device files 417Linux kernel configuration 421Solaris kernel configuration 427HP-UX kernel configuration 431Management of the AIX kernel 432Loadable kernel modules 434Linux udev for fun and profit 437Recommended reading 443Exercises 444 Section Two: Networking Chapter 14: TCP/IP Networking 447TCP/IP and its relationship to the Internet 447Networking road map 450Packet addressing 454IP addresses: the gory details 457Routing 465ARP: the Address Resolution Protocol 468DHCP: the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 469Security issues 472PPP: the Point-to-Point Protocol 476Basic network configuration 476System-specific network configuration 484Linux networking 484Solaris networking 494HP-UX networking 501AIX networking 506Recommended reading 508Exercises 509 Chapter 15: Routing 511Packet forwarding: a closer look 512Routing daemons and routing protocols 515Protocols on parade 518Routing strategy selection criteria 521Routing daemons 522Cisco routers 525Recommended reading 528Exercises 530 Chapter 16: Network Hardware 531Ethernet: the Swiss Army knife of networking 532Wireless: ethernet for nomads 541DSL and cable modems: the last mile 543Network testing and debugging 544Building wiring 545Network design issues 547Management issues 549Recommended vendors 550Recommended reading 550Exercises 551 Chapter 17: DNS: The Domain Name System 552Who needs DNS? 554How DNS works 555DNS for the impatient 558Name servers 563The DNS namespace 566Designing your DNS environment 568What's new in DNS 572The DNS database 574The BIND software 597BIND configuration examples 618The NSD/Unbound software 625Updating zone files 638Security issues 642Microsoft and DNS 667Testing and debugging 667Vendor specifics 681Recommended reading 686Exercises 688 Chapter 18: The Network File System 690Introduction to network file services 690The NFS approach 692Server-side NFS 698Client-side NFS 706Identity mapping for NFS version 4 709nfsstat: dump NFS statistics 710Dedicated NFS file servers 711Automatic mounting 711Recommended reading 717Exercises 718 Chapter 19: Sharing System Files 719What to share 720Copying files around 721LDAP: the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 728NIS: the Network Information Service 736Prioritizing sources of administrative information 739Recommended reading 741Exercises 741 Chapter 20: Electronic Mail 742Mail systems 744The anatomy of a mail message 748The SMTP protocol 750Mail system design 753Mail aliases 756Content scanning: spam and malware 761Email configuration 774sendmail 775sendmail configuration 778sendmail configuration primitives 782Security and sendmail 795sendmail performance 802sendmail testing and debugging 805Exim 807Postfix 828DKIM Configuration 845Integrated email solutions 853Recommended reading 854Exercises 855 Chapter 21: Network Management and Debugging 859Network troubleshooting 860ping: check to see if a host is alive 861SmokePing: gather ping statistics over time 864traceroute: trace IP packets 865netstat: get network statistics 868Inspection of live interface activity 873Packet sniffers 874The ICSI Netalyzr 878Network management protocols 879SNMP: the Simple Network Management Protocol 880The NET-SNMP agent 883Network management applications 884NetFlow: connection-oriented monitoring 890Recommended reading 893Exercises 894 Chapter 22: Security 896Is UNIX secure? 897How security is compromised 898Security tips and philosophy 901Passwords and user accounts 906PAM: cooking spray or authentication wonder? 908Setuid programs 912Effective use of chroot 913Security power tools 914Mandatory Access Control (MAC) 922Cryptographic security tools 924Firewalls 932Linux firewall features 935IPFilter for UNIX systems 939Virtual private networks (VPNs) 942Certifications and standards 944Sources of security information 947What to do when your site has been attacked 950Recommended reading 952Exercises 954 Chapter 23: Web Hosting 956Web hosting basics 957HTTP server installation 963Virtual interfaces 967The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) 971Caching and proxy servers 974Scaling beyond your limits 977Exercises 979 Section Three: Bunch O' StuffChapter 24: Virtualization 983Virtual vernacular 984Benefits of virtualization 988A practical approach 989Virtualization with Linux 991Solaris zones and containers 997AIX workload partitions 1001Integrity Virtual Machines in HP-UX 1003VMware: an operating system in its own right 1005Amazon Web Services 1005Recommended reading 1010Exercises 1010 Chapter 25: The X Window System 1011The display manager 1013Process for running an X application 1014X server configuration 1019X server troubleshooting and debugging 1026A brief note on desktop environments 1028Recommended reading 1030Exercises 1031 Chapter 26: Printing 1032Printing-system architecture 1033CUPS printing 1034Printing from desktop environments 1043System V printing 1045BSD and AIX printing 1054What a long, strange trip it's been 1065Common printing software 1067Printer languages 1068PPD files 1072Paper sizes 1073Printer practicalities 1075Troubleshooting tips 1081Recommended reading 1083Exercises 1084 Chapter 27: Data Center Basics 1085Data center reliability tiers 1086Cooling 1087Power 1091Racks 1094Tools 1095Recommended reading 1095Exercises 1096 Chapter 28: Green IT 1097Green IT initiation 1098The green IT eco-pyramid 1099Green IT strategies: data center 1100Green IT strategies: user workspace 1108Green IT friends 1110Exercises 1111 Chapter 29: Performance Analysis 1112What you can do to improve performance 1114Factors that affect performance 1115How to analyze performance problems 1117System performance checkup 1118Help! My system just got really slow! 1131Recommended reading 1133Exercises 1134 Chapter 30: Cooperating with Windows 1135Logging in to a UNIX system from Windows 1135Accessing remote desktops 1136Running Windows and Windows-like applications 1139Using command-line tools with Windows 1140Windows compliance with email and web standards 1141Sharing files with Samba and CIFS 1142Sharing printers with Samba 1149Debugging Samba 1152Active Directory authentication 1154Recommended reading 1160Exercises 1161 Chapter 31: Serial Devices and Terminals 1162The RS-232C standard 1163Alternative connectors 1165Hard and soft carrier 1167Hardware flow control 1168Serial device files 1168setserial: set serial port parameters under Linux 1169Pseudo-terminals 1170Configuration of terminals 1171Special characters and the terminal driver 1177stty: set terminal options 1178tset: set options automatically 1178Terminal unwedging 1179Debugging a serial line 1180Connecting to serial device consoles 1180Exercises 1182 Chapter 32: Management, Policy, and Politics 1183The purpose of IT 1184The structure of an IT organization 1190The help desk 1196The enterprise architects 1197The operations group 1199Management 1206Policies and procedures 1215Disaster recovery 1217Compliance: regulations and standards 1222Legal issues 1226Organizations, conferences, and other resources 1229Recommended Reading 1231Exercises 1231 Index 1233A Brief History of System Administration 1264In Defense of AIX 1274Colophon 1277About the Contributors 1278About the Authors 1279

About the Author

Evi Nemeth has retired from the Computer Science faculty at the University of Colorado. She is currently exploring the Pacific on her 40-foot sailboat named Wonderland. Garth Snyder has worked at NeXT and Sun and holds a BS in Engineering from Swarthmore College and an MD and an MBA from the University of Rochester. Trent R. Hein is the co-founder of Applied Trust, a company that provides IT infrastructure consulting services. Trent holds a BS in Computer Science from the University of Colorado. Ben Whaley is the Director of Enterprise Architecture at Applied Trust. Ben earned a BS in Computer Science from the University of Colorado. He is an expert in storage management, virtualization, and web infrastructure.

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