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Utilization of Residual Forest Biomass
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 2 Residual Forest Biomass as a Raw Material Reserve.- 2.1 Biomass Components of a Tree.- 2.1.1 Tree Crown.- 2.1.1.1 Development of the Crown.- 2.1.1.2 Foliage Mass.- 2.1.1.2.1 Moisture Content of Foliage.- 2.1.1.2.2 Vertical Distribution of Foliage Mass.- 2.1.1.2.3 Seasonal and Annual Variation in Foliage Mass.- 2.1.1.2.4 Effect of Tree Size on Foliage Mass.- 2.1.1.2.5 Effect of Crown Class on Foliage Mass.- 2.1.1.2.6 Effect of Tree Species on Foliage Mass.- 2.1.1.2.7 Effect of Atmospheric Pollution on Foliage Mass.- 2.1.1.3 Composition of Branch Mass.- 2.1.1.3.1 Moisture Content in Branches.- 2.1.1.3.2 Percentage of Bark in Branches.- 2.1.1.3.3 Dead Branches as a Biomass Component.- 2.1.1.4 Crown Mass.- 2.1.1.4.1 Crown Ratio.- 2.1.1.4.2 Vertical Distribution of Crown Mass.- 2.1.1.4.3 Effect of Tree Size on Crown Mass.- 2.1.1.4.4 Effect of Stand Density and Crown Class on Crown Mass.- 2.1.1.4.5 Effect of Tree Species on Crown Mass.- 2.1.2 Unmerchantable Top.- 2.1.2.1 Percentage of Bark in the Unmerchantable Top.- 2.1.2.2 Mass of Unmerchantable Top.- 2.1.3 Stump and Roots.- 2.1.3.1 Distribution of Stump-Root System Components.- 2.1.3.2 Percentage of Bark in Stump and Root Mass.- 2.1.3.3 Dry Mass of the Stump-Root System.- 2.2 Composition of Whole-Tree Biomass.- 2.3 Biomass of an Entire Stand.- 2.4 Forest Biomass Inventory.- 2.5 Quantity of Residue in Practical Logging Operations.- 2.5.1 Estimating the Quantity of Logging Residue.- 2.5.2 Examples of the Quantity of Logging Residue.- 3 Technical Properties of Residual Tree Components.- 3.1 Anatomical Structure of Residual Tree Components.- 3.1.1 Compression Wood in Softwood Branches.- 3.1.2 Tension Wood in Hardwood Branches.- 3.1.3 Juvenile Wood in Stem Tops.- 3.1.4 Anatomical Characteristics of Root Wood.- 3.2 Cell Dimensions in Residual Tree Components.- 3.2.1 Cell Dimensions in Branch Wood.- 3.2.2 Cell Dimensions in Stem Tops.- 3.2.3 Cell Dimensions in Stump and Root Woods.- 3.3 Chemical Composition of Residual Tree Components.- 3.3.1 Primary Constituents in Residual Tree Components.- 3.3.2 Extractives in Residual Tree Components.- 3.3.2.1 Extractives in Wood and Bark.- 3.3.2.2 Extractives in Foliage.- 3.3.3 Inorganic Materials in Residual Tree Components.- 3.4 Basic Density of Wood and Bark in Residual Tree Components.- 3.4.1 Basic Density of Wood and Bark in Branches.- 3.4.2 Basic Density of Wood and Bark in Stem Tops.- 3.4.3 Basic Density of Wood and Bark in Stumps and Roots.- 3.5 Heating Value of Residual Tree Components.- 4 Recovery of Residual Forest Biomass.- 4.1 Harvesting Whole Trees.- 4.1.1 The Basis of Whole-Tree Harvesting.- 4.1.2 Felling for Whole-Tree Harvesting.- 4.1.2.1 Motor-Manual Felling.- 4.1.2.2 Mechanized Felling and Bunching.- 4.1.3 Off-Road Haulage of Whole-Tree Material.- 4.1.3.1 Off-Road Haulage with Skidders.- 4.1.3.2 Off-Road Haulage with Forwarders.- 4.2 Relogging Slash from Cutovers.- 4.2.1 Collection of Slash.- 4.2.2 Off-Road Haulage of Slash.- 4.3 Continuously Progressing Swath Harvesters.- 4.3.1 The Basis of Swath Harvesting.- 4.3.2 Operation of the Swath Harvesters.- 4.3.3 Swath Harvester Prototypes.- 4.4 Harvesting Stump and Root Mass.- 4.4.1 Logging Characteristics of Stump-Root Systems.- 4.4.1.1 Dimensions of Stump-Root Systems.- 4.4.1.2 Power Requirement of Stump Extraction.- 4.4.2 Extraction of Complete Trees.- 4.4.3 Separate Extraction of Stump-Root Systems.- 4.4.3.1 Stump Extraction by Blasting.- 4.4.3.2 Stump Extraction with Chassis-Mounted Equipment.- 4.4.3.3 Stump Extraction with Crane-Mounted Equipment.- 4.4.3.4 Splitting and Cleaning as Part of the Stump Harvesting Schedule.- 4.4.4 Off-Road Haulage of Stump and Root Mass.- 5 Comminution of Residual Forest Biomass.- 5.1 The Purpose of Comminution.- 5.2 The Techniques of Comminution.- 5.2.1 Portable Chippers.- 5.2.2 Portable Chunkers.- 5.2.3 Portable Hogs.- 5.3 Energy and Power Requirement in Comminution.- 5.3.1 Energy Consumption in Comminution.- 5.3.2 Power Requirement of Comminution.- 5.4 Position of Comminution in the Harvesting Schedule.- 5.4.1 Comminution in Terrain.- 5.4.2 Comminution at an Upper Landing.- 5.4.3 Centralized Processing of Residual Wood.- 5.4.3.1 Terminals for Large Trees.- 5.4.3.2 Terminals for Small Trees.- 5.4.3.3 Terminals for Residual Biomass.- 6 Trucking Residual Forest Biomass.- 6.1 Transport-Technical Characteristics of Residual Biomass.- 6.2 Improvement of Bulk Density by Compaction.- 6.3 Trucking Unlimbed Timber.- 6.4 Trucking Unprocessed Logging Residue.- 6.5 Trucking Comminuted Biomass.- 6.6 Alternatives to Trucking.- 7 Examples of Biomass Harvesting Systems.- 7.1 Whole-Tree Chipping Systems.- 7.1.1 Chipping Small Trees for Farm Heating.- 7.1.2 Chipping Small Trees for a 1-MW Heating Plant.- 7.1.3 Chipping Small Trees for a 3-MW Heating Plant.- 7.1.4 Chipping Small Trees for Pulping.- 7.1.5 Chipping Low-Quality Hardwoods for Pulping.- 7.2 Systems for Chipping Slash.- 7.2.1 Chipping Slash in Terrain for a Large Power Plant.- 7.2.2 Chipping Slash at Landing for a Large Power Plant.- 7.3 Systems for Integrated Recovery of Crown Mass and Conventional Timber.- 7.3.1 Biomass Recovery Based on the Tree-Section Method.- 7.3.2 Biomass Recovery Based on Centralized Processing of Large Trees.- 7.4 Systems, for Harvesting Stump and Root Mass.- 7.4.1 Relogging Stump and Root Mass for Pulping.- 7.4.2 Harvesting Stump and Root Mass with Conventional Timber.- 8 Utilization of Residual Forest Biomass.- 8.1 Use of Chips as a Solid Fuel.- 8.1.1 Techniques for Direct Combustion of Chips.- 8.1.2 Effect of Chip Properties on Direct Combustion.- 8.1.3 Energy Efficiency of Chip Combustion.- 8.1.4 Drying and Storage of Fuel Chips.- 8.1.4.1 Transpiration Drying of Small Trees.- 8.1.4.2 Storage of Fuel Chips.- 8.2 Use of Residual Biomass for Pulp and Paper Products.- 8.2.1 Strength Properties of Pulp and Paper.- 8.2.2 Appearance and Optical Properties of Pulp and Paper.- 8.2.3 Pulp Yield.- 8.2.4 Beatability and Drainage of Pulp and Paper.- 8.2.5 Consumption and Recovery of Chemicals.- 8.2.6 Wear and Tear of Equipment.- 8.2.7 Concluding Remarks.- 8.3 Use of Residual Biomass for Panel Products.- 8.3.1 Use for Fiberboard.- 8.3.2 Use for Particleboard.- 8.3.3 Use for Structural Flakeboard.- 8.4 Use of Residual Biomass as a Feedstock for Chemicals.- 8.4.1 Gasification of Forest Biomass.- 8.4.2 Pyrolysis of Forest Biomass.- 8.4.3 Direct Catalytic Liquefaction of Forest Biomass.- 8.4.4 Hydrolysis of Forest Biomass.- 8.5 Use of Residual Forest Biomass for Fodder.- 8.5.1 Wood and Bark as Ruminant Fodder.- 8.5.2 Foliage as a Source of Protein and Vitamins.- 8.6 Upgrading Residual Forest Biomass.- 8.6.1 Upgrading Measures on Site.- 8.6.2 Upgrading Tree Sections.- 8.6.3 Upgrading Rough Chips.- 8.6.4 Upgrading Stump and Root Mass.- 9 Ecological Consequences of Residue Removal.- 9.1 Effect of Residue Removal on Nutrient Balance.- 9.1.1 Nutrient Budget of a Forest Ecosystem.- 9.1.2 Nutrient Loss in Conventional Logging.- 9.1.3 Nutrient Loss Caused by Intensive Biomass Removal.- 9.1.4 Restricting Operations on Sensitive Sites.- 9.2 Effect of Residue Removal on Regeneration and Growth.- 9.2.1 Logging Residue as a Work Difficulty Factor in Regeneration.- 9.2.2 Site Preparation Effect of Stump Removal.- 9.2.3 Initial Development of a Stand After Residue Removal.- 9.2.4 Growth of a Thinned Stand After Residue Removal.- 9.3 Effect of Residue Removal on Forest Health and Environment.- 9.3.1 Logging Damage to Soil and Trees.- 9.3.2 Effect of Residue Removal on Pathogenic Fungi.- 9.3.3 Effect of Residue Removal on Insects.- 9.3.4 Effect of Residue Removal on Environment.- 9.4 Returning Nutrients to Forest Soil.- 9.4.1 Returning Foliage.- 9.4.2 Returning Ash from Forest Biomass.- 9.4.2.1 Impurities in Power Plant Ash.- 9.4.2.2 Nutrient Content of Power Plant Ash.- 9.4.2.3 Power Plant Ash as a Soil Improvement Agent.- 9.4.2.4 Ash Recycling Techniques.- Scientific and Common Names of Tree Species.- Equivalents and Conversion Factors.- References.

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