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Volcanoes: Global Perspectives
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Table of Contents

PREFACE vii PART I INTRODUCTION 3 1. Eruptions, Jargon, and History 5 A Grey Volcano in Eruption Galunggung 1982 6 A Red Volcano in Eruption Kilauea 1974 16 Some Basic Terminology 22 History of Volcanology 27 Further Reading 39 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 40 PART II THE BIG PICTURE 43 2. Global Perspectives Plate Tectonics and Volcanism 45 Birth of a Theory 45 Volcanoes along Divergent Plate Boundaries 51 Volcanoes along Convergent Plate Boundaries 53 Intraplate Volcanoes 60 Further Reading 63 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 64 3. The Nature of Magma Where Volcanoes Come From 65 Origins of Magma 65 The Physics and Chemistry of Melting 68 Classification of Magma and Igneous Rocks 72 Principal Magma Types 73 Magmatic and Volcanic Gases 78 Further Reading 86 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 87 4. The Physical Properties of Magma and Why it Erupts 89 Magma Temperatures 89 Magma Rheology 91 Magma Ascent and Emplacement 94 Frozen Magma Subvolcanic Intrusives 100 Triggers for Volcanic Eruptions Why Volcanoes Erupt 105 Repose Intervals 108 Further Reading 109 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 110 PART III VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS AND THEIR PRODUCTS 113 5. Classifying Volcanic Eruptions 115 Lacroix Classification System 117 Rittman Diagrams 118 Geze Classification Diagram 119 Walker Classification System 119 Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 123 Further Reading 125 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 126 6. Effusive Volcanic Eruptions and Their Products 127 Mafic and Intermediate Effusive Eruptions 128 Pahoehoe and 0A0a 135 Pyroducts 138 Pahoehoe Surface Structures 147 Lava Flow Internal Structures 157 0A0a Surface Structures 162 Block Lavas 166 Radiocarbon Dating of Prehistoric Lava Flows 170 Further Reading 171 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 172 7. An Overview of Explosive Eruptions and Their Products 173 Ejecta Classification 174 Explosive Eruption Styles and Their Products 188 Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) 204 Further Reading 220 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 221 8. A Closer Look at Large-scale Explosive Eruptions 223 Measuring the Sizes of Plinian Eruptions 224 Plinian Eruption Dynamics 224 Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) 235 Directed Blasts 255 Super-Eruptions 258 Further Reading 261 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 262 PART IV VOLCANIC LANDFORMS AND SETTINGS 265 9. Constructional ( Positive ) Volcanic Landforms 267 Large Igneous Provinces 267 Shield Volcanoes 270 Composite Volcanoes 283 Minor Volcanic Landforms 290 Volcano Old Age and Extinction 308 Further Reading 314 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 315 10. Negative Volcanic Landforms Craters and Calderas 317 Small Craters 318 Calderas 321 Post-caldera Resurgence 331 Caldera Formation Mechanisms 335 Caldera Roots Relationships to Plutonic Rocks 336 Volcano-tectonic Depressions 336 Further Reading 338 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 339 11. Mass-wasting Processes and Products 341 Landslides, Avalanches, and Sector Collapses 341 Lahars 347 Causes of Lahars 350 Lahar Dynamics 354 Lahar Destructiveness 356 Further Reading 358 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 359 12. Volcanoes Unseen and Far Away 361 Submarine and Subglacial Volcanoes The Meeting of Fire, Water, and Ice 362 Extraterrestrial Volcanoes 377 Further Reading 392 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 393 PART V HUMANISTIC VOLCANOLOGY 395 13. Volcanoes: Life, Climate, and Human History 397 Volcanoes and the Origin of Life 397 Volcanoes, Atmosphere, and Climate 398 Volcanic Influence on Soil Fertility and Agriculture 406 Volcanoes and Human History 407 Social Impact of Volcanic Eruptions 408 Further Reading 411 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 412 14. Volcanic Hazards and Risk Monitoring and Mitigation 413 Hazards and Risk 414 Active, Dormant, and Extinct Volcanoes 414 Volcanic Hazards 416 Volcanic Risk 425 Volcano Monitoring 443 Volcanic Crisis Management 455 Further Reading 462 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 463 15. Economic Volcanology 465 Earth Energy Relationships 465 Volcano Energy 466 Stored Energy: Geothermal Power 467 Volcanoes and Ore Deposits 470 Other Useful Volcanic Materials 475 Further Reading 477 Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion 478 Epilogue: The Future of Volcanology 479 References 481 Index 521 Appendix: List of Prominent World Volcanoes 538 Map: Prominent World Volcanoes 540 Companion website available at www.wiley.com/go/lockwood/volcanoes

About the Author

Jack Lockwood worked for the US Geological Survey for over30 years, including 20 years in Hawaii, based at the HawaiianVolcano Observatory. He now runs a consulting business, GeohazardsConsultants International. Richard (Rick) Hazlett is Coordinator of theEnvironmental Analysis Program and a member of the GeologyDepartment at Pomona College in Claremont, California, where heteaches an upper-level course in physical volcanology.

Reviews

Overall I would highly recommend this work to anyone whowishes to understand volcanoes from a globalperspective. (Bull Volcanol, 2011)"Volcanoes will satisfy everybody interested in this fascinatingtopic, but most of all this textbook is written for volcanologists, and advanced undergraduate and graduatestudents in Earth sciences." (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2011) "Overall I would highly recommend this work to anyone who wishesto understand volcanoes from a global perspective." (Bull Volcanol,2011) "Essential. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals;general readers". (Choice, 1 November 2010)

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