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Welding Metallurgy
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New or Used: $282.79
New or Used: $282.79

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii I INTRODUCTION 1 1 Fusion Welding Processes 3 2 Heat Flow in Welding 37 3 Chemical Reactions in Welding 65 Further Reading 95 Problems 95 4 Fluid Flow and Metal Evaporation in Welding 97 4.1 Fluid Flow in Arcs 97 4.2 Fluid Flow in Weld Pools 103 4.3 Metal Evaporation 114 4.4 Active Flux GTAW 116 References 117 Further Reading 119 Problems 120 5 Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Fatigue 122 5.1 Residual Stresses 122 5.2 Distortion 126 5.3 Fatigue 131 5.4 Case Studies 137 References 140 Further Reading 141 Problems 141 II THE FUSION ZONE 143 6 Basic Solidification Concepts 145 6.1 Solute Redistribution during Solidification 145 6.2 Solidification Modes and Constitutional Supercooling 155 6.3 Microsegregation and Banding 160 6.4 Effect of Cooling Rate 163 6.5 Solidification Path 166 References 167 Further Reading 168 Problems 169 7 Weld Metal Solidification I: Grain Structure 170 7.1 Epitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary 170 7.2 Nonepitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary 172 7.3 Competitive Growth in Bulk Fusion Zone 174 7.4 Effect of Welding Parameters on Grain Structure 174 7.5 Weld Metal Nucleation Mechanisms 178 7.6 Grain Structure Control 187 References 195 Further Reading 197 Problems 197 8 Weld Metal Solidification II: Microstructure within Grains 199 8.1 Solidification Modes 199 8.2 Dendrite and Cell Spacing 204 8.3 Effect of Welding Parameters 206 8.4 Refining Microstructure within Grains 209 References 213 Further Reading 213 Problems 214 9 Post-Solidification Phase Transformations 216 9.1 Ferrite-to-Austenite Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds 216 9.2 Austenite-to-Ferrite Transformation in Low-Carbon, Low-Alloy Steel Welds 232 References 239 Further Reading 241 Problems 241 10 Weld Metal Chemical Inhomogeneities 243 10.1 Microsegregation 243 10.2 Banding 249 10.3 Inclusions and Gas Porosity 250 10.4 Inhomogeneities Near Fusion Boundary 252 10.5 Macrosegregation in Bulk Weld Metal 255 References 260 Further Reading 261 Problems 261 11 Weld Metal Solidification Cracking 263 11.1 Characteristics, Cause, and Testing 263 11.2 Metallurgical Factors 268 11.3 Mechanical Factors 284 11.4 Reducing Solidification Cracking 285 11.5 Case Study: Failure of a Large Exhaust Fan 295 References 296 Further Reading 299 Problems 299 III THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE 301 12 Formation of the Partially Melted Zone 303 12.1 Evidence of Liquation 303 12.2 Liquation Mechanisms 304 12.3 Directional Solidification of Liquated Material 314 12.4 Grain Boundary Segregation 314 12.5 Grain Boundary Solidification Modes 316 12.6 Partially Melted Zone in Cast Irons 318 References 318 Problems 319 13 Difficulties Associated with the Partially Melted Zone 321 13.1 Liquation Cracking 321 13.2 Loss of Strength and Ductility 328 13.3 Hydrogen Cracking 328 13.4 Remedies 330 References 336 Problems 338 IV THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE 341 14 Work-Hardened Materials 343 14.1 Background 343 14.2 Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Welding 347 14.3 Effect of Welding Parameters and Process 349 References 351 Further Reading 352 Problems 352 15 Precipitation-Hardening Materials I: Aluminum Alloys 353 15.1 Background 353 15.2 Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Mg-Si Alloys 359 15.3 Al-Zn-Mg Alloys 367 15.4 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys 370 References 371 Further Reading 372 Problems 372 16 Precipitation-Hardening Materials II: Nickel-Base Alloys 375 16.1 Background 375 16.2 Reversion of Precipitate and Loss of Strength 379 16.3 Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking 384 References 390 Further Reading 392 Problems 392 17 Transformation-Hardening Materials: Carbon and Alloy Steels 393 17.1 Phase Diagram and CCT Diagrams 393 17.2 Carbon Steels 396 17.3 Low-Alloy Steels 404 17.4 Hydrogen Cracking 410 17.5 Reheat Cracking 418 17.6 Lamellar Tearing 422 17.7 Case Studies 425 References 427 Further Reading 429 Problems 430 18 Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Stainless Steels 431 18.1 Classification of Stainless Steels 431 18.2 Austenitic Stainless Steels 433 18.3 Ferritic Stainless Steels 446 18.4 Martensitic Stainless Steels 449 18.5 Case Study: Failure of a Pipe 451 References 452 Further Reading 453 Problems 454 Index 455

About the Author

SINDO KOU, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Wisconsin. He graduated from MIT with a PhD degree in metallurgy. He is a Fellow of American Welding Society and ASM International. He is the author of Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing, also published by Wiley.

Reviews

"?well presented, comprehensive, and accurate?a welcome addition to the bookshelves of metallurgists, academics, postgraduate students, as well as non-specialized engineers?" (JOM, February 26, 2004) "The second edition, a valuable resource for practitioners, researchers and students, contains more exercises and offers a solution manual upon request..." (Materials Evaluation, February 2003) "For many years this review has been looking, without success, for a book on the metallurgy of welding. This...second edition fulfills all those needs and expectations...all those who need a basic understanding of...welds will greatly benefit...a valuable acquisition?highly recommended." (Choice, Vol. 40, No. 7, March 2003)

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