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typical mild "Sachsonian" humor and illustrated with a wealth of examples and evidence. I doubt whether any other of us ethnomusicologists would have been capable of writing such a comprehensive study: S~chs had at his fingertips a phenomenal amount of factual information. Sometimes, under his wise guidance, complicated propositions become surprisingly simple. The reader will be as fascinated as I was by the originality of some of his conelusions, captivated by his penetrating com- parisons, and charmed by his rich and expressive language. After having lived with this book for aperiod of some months, I realize a1l themore what the death of Curt Sachs means to the musicological world. "The Wellsprings of Music" forms a worthy elose to that long series of publications his boundless energy and unsurpassed knowledge have given uso I feel greatly indebted to Dr. Eric Werner, New York, for his decisive encouragement towards the publication of this work and for the active interest he took in it. I want also to express my gratitude to the musicologist Miss Marijke Charbon, The Hague, for having made an Index of N ames and for some useful suggestions. Amsterdam, 15th February 1960 JAAP KUNST My dear friend Jaap Kunst did not live to see this book in print. I wish to express my deep gratitude to him, whose dedi- cated help and unfailing and devoted interest made its publi- cation possible.
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Table of Contents

One / Thoughts and Methods.- I. Preliminaries.- II. The advent of the ethnomusicologist.- Theology and humanism as fundaments of earlier education - early music histories: Martini, Hawkins, Burney, Laborde, Forkel, Krause, Fetis, Hullah, Ambros - early non-historical sources: Rousseau and the romantics, Vil-lotteau, Jones, doctoral theses - beginnings of modern method with Ellis, Edison and Fewkes-Gilman-Stumpf - phonographic archives - change of name from comparative musicology to ethnomusicology..- III. The ethnomusicologist's workshop.- Field work - phonograph, gramophone, tape - tone measurements - acoustical devices: forks, Tonmesser, tonometer, monochord - visual devices: oscilloscope, photophonography, stroboscope, electronic counter - editing - transcribing - logarithms and cents - savarts - Reiner's music rule - notation..- IV. The question of origin.- Theories - tone languages - mouth music - drum languages etc. - absence of singing - prehistory - radio carbon method of dating - fluorine method - stone and metal ages - anthropology - culture changes - the " savages " - primitive and non-literate man - scriptless society and folk music - monogenism and polygenism - KuHurkreislehre - " races "..- Two / Early Music.- V. The oldest music: tumbling strains.- Major and minor - tumbling strains or stair melodies - high and low - domestication - triadic and tetradic octaves..- VI. The oldest music: one-step melodies.- Terminology - sharping the pitch - affixes and infixes - tetrachords - bare fifths and sixths - pathogenic and logogenic - meaningless syllables - burdens - glossolalia - repetitive style - flexa - ontological remarks - imitation and dramatization - animal dirges or epikkedia..- VII. Conservatism and magic.- Palaeolithic survivals - the fight of music and poetry- strict tradition - magic - charms against sickness, death and dearth - mana - unnatural singing - kazoos.- VIII. Vocal mannerisms.- Von Hornboste's and Merriam's descriptions - European, Asiatic, Australian, Polynesian, Melanesian, African styles - quilisma, pressus, plica - tessitura - proposed terminology - tempo and intensity - sense and value - aesthetical aspects.- IX. Instruments.- Literature - extensions - other rudiments - male and female - cosmology - connotations of the flute - of stinged instruments and jaw's harp - conflicting connotations - bull roarer - gourd rattle - on the way to melody - finger holes - foot and inches - Blasquintentheorie - tuning of strings - isotony - tuning of xylophones - East African and Indonesian parallels - chimes - the lithophone of the Musee de l'Homme - panoramic view - Europe and Africa - early instrumental music - zanza.- X. Rhythm and form III.- General notions - rhythmic patterns - quintary rhythm - downbeat and upbeat - metric alteration - meter and time - additive meters - " fascinating rhythm" - art and folk music - cycles - strictness and freedom - overall patterns - isorhythm - panoramic view - form - repetition - stimulus and narcotic medieval parallels: lai, estampie, lied, rondeau - antiphony and response - variation - zanza cyclic forms.- Three / On the Way.- Growth, personality, art.- Culture changes - musical criticism - musical contests - individualism and art - copyright.- Four / The Fate of Secondal and Tertial Patterns.- The widening nucleus - " triadic and fanfare melodies" - tonal anatomy and physiology - chains - double, triple, quadruple, quintuple and sextuple thirds - skeletons and infixes - pentatonism and heptatonism - German chorale dialect - Landino third - four-line notation - six-five patterns - triadic octaves.- Five / The Fate of Quartal and Quintal Patterns.- Disjunction and conjunction - quartal chains - chains of fifths - hybrids - modulation - culture chance once more.- Six / Centric Melodies Gregorian tenor melodies - the concept of mese.- Seven / Polyphony.- Vertical and horizontal - distribution - isochronous conductus - parallels - drones - grounds - alternation and canon - Stimmtausch- heterophony.- Eight / Cross- or Polyrhythm.- Independent accompaniment - hemiola - " syncopation " Afro-Indian concordances.- Nine / Professional Music and Musical Systems.- Semi-professionals and professionals - bards - minstrelsy - segregation and discrimination - professional waiters - musical vocabularies - pitch syllables - concomitant method of learning.- Ten / `Progress'?.- The fading theory of evolution - culture graft - progress - evidences against progress - our gain is our loss.- A note on Bibliography.- Index of Names.

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