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PART 1 THE FOUNDATIONS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION IN THE ANCIENT WORLD CHAPTER 1 The Birth of CivilizationEarly Humans and Their CultureThe Paleolithic AgeThe Neolithic AgeThe Bronze Age and the Birth of CivilizationEarly Civilizations to about 1000 B.C.E.Mesopotamian CivilizationEgyptian CivilizationAncient Near Eastern EmpiresThe HittitesThe AssyriansThe Second Assyrian EmpireThe Neo-BabyloniansThe Persian EmpireCyrus the GreatDarius the GreatGovernment and AdministrationReligionArt and CulturePalestineThe Canaanites and the PhoeniciansThe IsraelitesThe Jewish ReligionGeneral Outlook of Mideastern CulturesHumans and NatureToward the Greeks and Western Thought CHAPTER 2 The Rise of Greek CivilizationThe Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to about 1150 B.C.E.The MinoansThe MycenaeansThe Greek "Middle Ages" to about 750 B.C.E.Greek MigrationsThe Age of HomerThe PolisDevelopment of the PolisThe HoplitePhalanxThe Importance of the PolisExpansion of the Greek WorldMagna GraeciaThe Greek ColonyThe Tyrants (ca. 700-500 B.C.E.)The Major StatesSpartaAthensLife in Archaic GreeceSocietyReligionPoetryThe Persian WarsThe Ionian RebellionThe War in Greece CHAPTER 3 Classical and Hellenistic Greece Aftermath of VictoryThe Delian LeagueThe Rise of CimonThe First Peloponnesian War: Athens against SpartaThe Breach with SpartaThe Division of GreeceClassical GreeceThe Athenian EmpireAthenian DemocracyThe Women of Athens: Social Status and Everyday LifeSlaveryReligion in Public LifeThe Great Peloponnesian WarCausesStrategic StalemateThe Fall of AthensCompetition for Leadership in the Fourth Century B.C.E.The Hegemony of SpartaThe Hegemony of Thebes: The Second Athenian EmpireThe Culture of Classical GreeceThe Fifth Century B.C.E.The Fourth Century B.C.E.Philosophy and the Crisis of the PolisThe Hellenistic WorldThe Macedonian ConquestAlexander the GreatThe SuccessorsHellenistic CulturePhilosophyLiteratureArt and ArchitectureMathematics and Science CHAPTER 4 Rome: From Republic to EmpirePrehistoric ItalyThe EtruscansGovernmentReligionWomenDominionRoyal RomeGovernmentThe FamilyWomen in Early RomeClientagePatricians and PlebiansThe RepublicConstitutionThe Conquest of ItalyRomeand CarthageThe Republic's Conquest of the Hellenistic WorldCivilization in the Early Roman RepublicReligionEducationSlaveryRoman Imperialism: The Late RepublicThe Aftermath of ConquestThe GracchiMarius and SullaThe Fall of the RepublicPompey, Crassus, Caesar, and CiceroThe First TriumvirateJulius Caesar and his Government of RomeThe Second Triumvirate and the Triumph of Octavian CHAPTER 5 The Roman EmpireThe Augustan PrincipateAdministrationThe Army and DefenseReligion and MoralityCivilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan AgesThe Late RepublicThe Age of AugustusImperial Rome, 14 to 180 c.e.The EmperorsThe Administration of the EmpireWomen of the Upper ClassesLife in Imperial Rome: The Apartment HouseThe Culture of the Early EmpireThe Rise of ChristianityJesus of NazarethPaul of TarsusOrganizationThe Persecution of ChristiansThe Emergence of CatholicismThe Crisis of the Third CenturyBarbarian InvasionsEconomic DifficultiesThe Social OrderCivil DisorderThe Late EmpireThe Fourth Century and Imperial ReorganizationThe Triumph of ChristianityArts and Letters in the Late EmpireThe Preservation of Classical CultureChristian Writers THE WEST AND THE WORLD: ANCIENT WARFARE PART 2: THE MIDDLE AGES CHAPTER 6 Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476-1000)On the Eve of the Frankish AscendancyGermanic MigrationsNew Western MastersThe Byzantine EmpireThe Reign of JustinianThe Spread of Byzantine ChristianityPersians and MuslimsIslam and the Islamic WorldMuhammad's ReligionIslamic DiversityIslamic EmpiresThe Western Debt to IslamWestern Society and the Developing Christian ChurchMonastic CultureThe Doctrine of Papal PrimacyThe Religious Division of ChristiandomThe Kingdom of the Franks: From Clovis to CharlemagneGoverning the FranksThe Reign of Charlemagne (768-814)Break up of the Carolingian KingdomFeudal SocietyOriginsVassalage and the FiefDaily Life and ReligionFragmentation and Divided Loyalty CHAPTER 7 The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000-1300)Otto I and the Revival of the EmpireUnifying GermanyEmbracing the ChurchThe Reviving Catholic ChurchThe Cluny Reform Movement The Investiture Struggle: Gregory VII and Henry IVThe CrusadesThe Pontificate of Innocent III (r. 1198-1216)Englandand France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)William the ConquerorHenry IIEleanor of Aquitaine and Court CulturePopular Rebellion and Magna CartaPhilip II AugustusFrancein the Thirteenth Century: The Reign of Louis IXGenerosity AbroadOrder and Excellence at HomeThe Hohenstaufen Empire (1152-1272)Frederick I BarbarossaHenry VI and the Sicilian ConnectionOtto IV and the Welf InterregnumFrederick IIRomanesque and Gothic Art CHAPTER 8 Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000-1300)The Traditional Order of LifeNoblesClergyPeasantsTowns and TownspeopleThe Chartering of TownsThe Rise of MerchantsChallenging the Old LordsNew Models of GovernmentTowns and KingsJews in Christian SocietySchools and UniversitiesUniversityof BolognaCathedral SchoolsUniversityof ParisThe CurriculumPhilosophy and TheologyWomen in Medieval SocietyImage and StatusLife ChoicesWorking WomenThe Lives of ChildrenChildren as "Little Adults"Children as a Special Stage THE WEST AND THE WORLD: THE INVENTION OF PRINTING IN CHINA AND EUROPE PART 3: EUROPE IN TRANSITION CHAPTER 9 The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300-1453)The Black DeathPreconditions and Causes of the PlaguePopular RemediesSocial and Economic ConsequencesNew Conflicts and OpportunitiesThe Hundred Years' War and the Rise of National SentimentThe Causes of the WarProgress of the WarEcclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval ChurchThe Thirteenth-Century PapacyBoniface VIII and Philip the FairThe Avignon Papacy (1309-1377)John Wycliffe and John HussThe Great Schism (1378-1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449Medieval RussiaPolitics and SocietyMongol Rule (1243-1480) CHAPTER 10 Renaissance and Discovery The Renaissance in Italy (1375-1527)The Italian City-StateHumanismRenaissance ArtSlavery in the RenaissanceItaly's Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494-1527)Charles VIII's March through ItalyPope Alexander VI and the Borgia FamilyPope Julius IINiccolo MachiavelliRevival of Monarchy in Northern EuropeFranceSpainEnglandThe Holy Roman EmpireThe Northern RenaissanceThe Printing PressErasmusHumanism and ReformVoyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and EastThe Portuguese Chart the CourseThe Spanish Voyages of ColumbusThe Spanish Empire in the New WorldThe Church in Spanish AmericaThe Economy of ExploitationThe Impact on Europe CHAPTER 11 The Age of ReformationSociety and ReligionSocial and Political ConflictPopular Religious Movements and Criticisms of the ChurchMartin Luther and German Reformation to 1525Justification by Faith AloneThe Attack on IndulgencesElection of Charles VLuther's Excommunication and the Diet of WormsImperial Distractions: France and the TurksHow the Reformation SpreadThe Peasants' RevoltThe Reformation ElsewhereZwingli and the Swiss ReformationAnabaptists and Radical ProtestantsJohn Calvin and the Genevan ReformationPolitical Consolidation of the Lutheran ReformationThe Diet of AugsburgThe Expansion _of the ReformationReaction against ProtestantsThe Peace of AugsburgThe English Reformation to 1553The Preconditions of ReformThe King's AffairThe "Reform Parliament"Wives of Henry VIIIThe King's Religious ConservatismThe Protestant Reformation under Edward VICatholic Reform and Counter-ReformationSources of Catholic ReformIgnatius of Loyola and the JesuitsThe Council of Trent (1545-1563)The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western EuropeThe Revolution in Religion: Practices and InstitutionsThe Reformation and EducationThe Reformation and the Changing Role of WomenFamily Life in Early Modern EuropeLater MarriagesArranged MarriagesFamily SizeBirth ControlWet NursingLoving Families?Literary Imagination in TransitionMiguel De Cervantes Saaavedra: Rejection of IdealismWilliam Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age CHAPTER 12 The Age of Religious WarsRenewed Religious StruggleThe French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)Appeal of CalvinismCatherine de Medicis and the GuisesThe Rise to Power of Henry of NavarreThe Edict of NantesImperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556-1598)Pillars of Spanish PowerThe Revolt in the NetherlandsEnglandand Spain (1553-1603)Mary I (r. 1553-1558)Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)Preconditions for WarFour Periods of WarThe Treaty of Westphalia CHAPTER 13 European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth CenturiesThe Netherlands: Golden Age to DeclineUrban ProsperityEconomic DeclineTwo Models of European Political DevelopmentConstitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart EnglandJames ICharles IThe Long Parliament and Civil WarOliver Cromwell and the Puritan RepublicCharles II and the Restoration of the MonarchyThe "Glorious Revolution"The Age of WalpoleRise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIVYears of Personal RuleVersaillesKing by Divine RightLouis's Early WarsLouis's Repressive Religious PoliciesLouis's Later WarsFranceafter Louis XIVCentral and Eastern EuropePoland: Absence of Strong Central AuthorityThe Habsburg Empire _and the Pragmatic SanctionPrussiaand the HohenzollernsRussiaEnters the European Political ArenaThe Romanor DynastyPeter the GreatThe Ottoman EmpireReligious Toleration and Ottoman GovernmentThe End of Ottoman Expansion CHAPTER 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth CenturiesThe Scientific RevolutionNicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered UniverseTycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific DiscoveriesGalileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical LawsIsaac Newton Discovers _the Laws of GravitationPhilosophy Responds to Changing ScienceNature as MechanismFrancis Bacon: The Empirical MethodRene Descartes: The Method of Rational DeductionThomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute GovernmentJohn Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and TolerationThe New Institutions of Expanding Natural KnowledgeWomen in the World of the Scientific RevolutionThe New Science and Religious FaithThe Case of GalileoBlaise Pascal: Reason and FaithThe English Approach to Science and ReligionContinuing SuperstitionWitch-Hunts and PanicWho Were the Witches?End of the Witch-Hunts CHAPTER 15 Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth CenturyMajor Features of Life in the Old RegimeMaintenance of TraditionHierarchy and PrivilegeThe AristocracyVarieties of Aristocratic PrivilegeAristocratic ResurgenceThe Land and Its TillersPeasants and SerfsAristocratic Domination of the Countryside: the English Game LawsFamily Structures and the Family EconomyHouseholdsThe Family EconomyWomen and the Family EconomyChildren and the World of the Family EconomyThe Revolution in AgricultureNew Crops and New MethodsExpansion of the PopulationThe Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth CenturyA Revolution in ConsumptionIndustrial Leadership of Great BritainNew Methods of Textile ProductionThe Steam EngineIron ProductionThe Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working WomenThe Growth of CitiesPatterns of Preindustrial UrbanizationUrban ClassesThe Urban Riot CHAPTER 16 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial RebellionPeriods of European Overseas EmpiresMercantile EmpiresMercantilist GoalsFrench-British RivalryThe Spanish Colonial SystemColonial GovernmentTrade RegulationColonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon MonarchsBlack African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic EconomyThe African Presence in the AmericasSlavery and the Transatlantic EconomyThe Experience of SlaveryMid-Eighteenth-Century WarsThe War of Jenkins's EarThe War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)The "Diplomatic Revolution" of 1756The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)The American Revolution and EuropeResistance to the Imperial Search for RevenueThe Crisis and IndependenceAmerican Political IdeasEvents in Great BritainBroader Impact of the American Revolution THE WEST AND THE WORLD: THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE, DISEASE, ANIMALS, AND AGRICULTURE PART 4: ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTION CHAPTER 17 The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century ThoughtFormative Influences on the EnlightenmentIdeas of Newton and LockeThe Example of British Toleration and Political StabilityThe Emergence of a Print CultureThe PhilosophesVoltaire-First among the PhilosophesThe Enlightenment and ReligionDeismTolerationRadical Enlightenment Criticism of ChristianityJewish Thinkers in the Age of EnlightenmentIslam in Enlightenment ThoughtThe Enlightenment and SocietyThe Encyclopedia: Freedom and Economic ImprovementBeccaria and Reform of Criminal LawThe Physiocrats and Economic FreedomAdam Smith on Economic Growth and Social ProgressPolitical Thought of the PhilosophesMontesquieu and Spirit of the LawsRousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern SocietyEnlightened Critics of European EmpiresWomen in the Thought and Practice of the EnlightenmentRococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century ArtEnlightened AbsolutismFrederickthe Great of PrussiaJoseph II of AustriaCatherine the Great of RussiaThe Partition of PolandThe End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution The Crisis of the French MonarchyThe Monarchy Seeks New TaxesCalonne's Reform Plan and the Assembly of NotablesDeadlock and the Calling of the Estates GeneralThe Revolution of 1789The Estates General Becomes the National AssemblyFall of the BastilleThe "Great Fear" and the Night of August 4The Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenThe Parisian Women's March on VersaillesThe Reconstruction of FrancePolitical ReorganizationEconomic PolicyThe Civil Constitution of the ClergyCounterrevolutionary ActivityThe End of the Monarchy: A Second RevolutionEmergence of the JacobinsThe Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottesEuropeat War with the RevolutionEdmund Burke Attacks the RevolutionSuppression of Reform in BritainThe Second and Third Partitions of Poland, 1793, 1795The Reign of TerrorWar with EuropeThe Republic DefendedThe "Republic of Virtue" and Robespierre's Justification of TerrorRepression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican WomenDe-ChristianizationRevolutionary TribunalsThe End of the TerrorThe Thermidorian ReactionEstablishment of the DirectoryRemoval of the Sans-culottes from Political LifeCHAPTER 19 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of RomanticismThe Rise of Napoleon BonaparteEarly Military VictoriesThe Constitution of the Year VIIIThe Consulate in France (1799-1804)Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic OppositionConcordat with the Roman Catholic ChurchThe Napoleonic CodeEstablishing a DynastyNapoleon's Empire (1804-1814)Conquering an EmpireThe Continental SystemEuropean Response to the EmpireGerman Nationalism and Prussian ReformThe Wars of LiberationThe Invasion of RussiaEuropean CoalitionThe Congress of Vienna and the European SettlementTerritorial AdjustmentsThe Hundred Days and the Quadruple AllianceThe Romantic MovementRomantic Questioning of the Supremacy of ReasonRousseau and EducationKant and ReasonRomantic LiteratureThe English Romantic WritersThe German Romantic WritersRomantic ArtThe Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo-GothicismNature and the SublimeReligion in the Romantic PeriodMethodismNew Directions in Continental ReligionRomantic Views of Nationalism and HistoryHerder and CultureHegel and HistoryIslam, the Middle East, and RomanticismIn PerspectiveA Closer Look: The Coronation of Napoleon
Compare & Connect: The Experience of War in the Napoleonic Age
Encountering the Past: Sailors and Canned Food CHAPTER 20 The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815-1832)The Challenges of Nationalism and LiberalismThe Emergence of NationalismEarly Nineteenth-Century Political LiberalismConservative Governments: The Domestic Political OrderConservative OutlooksLiberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the GermaniesPostwar Repression in Great BritainBourbon Restoration in FranceThe Conservative International OrderThe Congress SystemThe Spanish Revolution of 1820Revolt against Ottoman Rule in the BalkansThe Wars of Independence in Latin AmericaRevolution in HaitiWars of Independence on the South American ContinentIndependencein New SpainBrazilian IndependenceThe Conservative Order Shaken in EuropeRussia: the Decembrist Revolt of 1825Revolution in France (1830)BelgiumBecomes Independent (1830)The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832) CHAPTER 21 Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830-1850)Toward an Industrial SocietyPopulation and Migration RailwaysThe Labor ForceThe Emergence of a Wage Labor ForceWorking-Class Political Action: The Example of British ChartismFamily Structures and the Industrial RevolutionThe Family in the Early Factory SystemWomen in the Early Industrial RevolutionOpportunities and Exploitation in EmploymentChanging Expectations in the Working-Class MarriageProblems of Crime and OrderNew Police ForcesPrison ReformClassical EconomicsMalthus on PopulationRicardo on WagesGovernment Policies Based on Classical EconomicsEarly SocialismUtopian SocialismAnarchismMarxism1848: Year of RevolutionsFrance: the Second Republic and Louis NapoleonThe Habsburg Empire: Nationalism ResistedItaly: Republicanism DefeatedGermany: Liberalism Frustrated THE WEST AND THE WORLD: THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY IN THE TRANSATLANTIC ECONOMY PART 5: TOWARD THE MODERN WORLD CHAPTER 22 The Age of Nation-StatesThe Crimean War (1853-1856)Peace Settlement and Long-Term ResultsReforms in the Ottoman EmpireItalian UnificationRomantic RepublicansCavour's PolicyThe New Italian StateGerman UnificationBismarckThe Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870-1871)France: From Liberal Empire to the Third RepublicThe Paris CommuneThe Third RepublicThe Dreyfus AffairThe Habsburg EmpireFormation of the Dual MonarchyUnrest of NationalitiesRussia: Emancipation and Revolutionary StirringsReforms of Alexander IIRevolutionariesGreat Britain: Toward DemocracyThe Second Reform Act (1867)Gladstone's Great Ministry (1868-1874)Disraeli in Office (1874-1880)The Irish QuestionCHAPTER 23 The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World WarIPopulation Trends and MigrationThe Second Industrial RevolutionNew IndustriesEconomic DifficultiesThe Middle Classes in AscendancySocial Distinctions within the Middle ClassesLate-Nineteenth-Century Urban LifeThe Redesign of CitiesUrban SanitationHousing Reform and Middle-Class ValuesVarieties of Late-Nineteenth-Century Women's ExperiencesWomen's Social DisabilitiesNew Employment Patterns for WomenWorking-Class Women Poverty and ProstitutionWomen of the Middle ClassThe Rise of Political FeminismJewish EmancipationDiffering Degrees of CitizenshipBroadened OpportunitiesLabor, Socialism, and Politics to World War ITrade UnionismDemocracy and Political PartiesKarl Marx and the First InternationalGreat Britain: Fabianism and Early Welfare ProgramsFrance: "Opportunism" RejectedGermany: Social Democrats and RevisionismRussia: Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism CHAPTER 24 The Birth of Modern European ThoughtThe New Reading PublicAdvances in Primary EducationReading Material for the Mass AudienceScience at Mid-centuryComte, Positivism, and the Prestige of ScienceDarwin's Theory of Natural SelectionScience and EthicsChristianity and the Church under SiegeIntellectual SkepticismConflict between Church and State Areas of Religious RevivalThe Roman Catholic Church and the Modern WorldIslam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European ThoughtToward a Twentieth-Century Frame of MindScience: The Revolution in PhysicsLiterature: Realism and NaturalismModernism in LiteratureThe Coming of Modern ArtFriedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt Against ReasonThe Birth of PsychoanalysisRetreat from Rationalism in Politics RacismAnti-Semitism and the Birth of ZionismWomen and Modern ThoughtAnti-feminism in Late-Nineteenth-Century ThoughtNew Directions in Feminism CHAPTER 25 The Age of Western ImperialismThe Close of the Age of Early Modern ColonizationThe Age of British Imperial Dominance The Imperialism of Free TradeBritish Settler ColoniesIndia-The Jewel in the Crown of the British EmpireThe "New Imperialism," 1870-1914Motives for the New ImperialismThe Partition of AfricaAlgeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and LibyaEgypt and British Strategic Concern about the Upper NileWest AfricaThe Belgian CongoGerman Empire in AfricaSouthern AfricaRussian Expansion in Mainland AsiaWestern Powers in AsiaFrance in AsiaThe United States Actions in Asia and the PacificThe Boxer RebellionTools of ImperialismSteamboatsConquest of Tropical DiseasesFirearmsThe Missionary FactorEvangelical Protestant MissionariesRoman Catholic Missionary AdvanceTensions between Missionaries and Imperial AdministratorsMissionaries and Indigenous Religious MovementsScience and ImperialismBotanyZoologyMedicineAnthropology THE WEST AND THE WORLD: IMPERIALISM: ANCIENT AND MODERN CHAPTER 26 Alliances, War, and a Troubled PeaceEmergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems (1873-1890)Bismarck's LeadershipForging the Triple Entente (1890-1907)World War IThe Road to War (1908-1914)Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June-August 1914)Strategies and Stalemate; 1914-1917The Russian RevolutionThe Provisional GovernmentLenin and the BolsheviksThe Communist DictatorshipThe End of World War IGermany's Last OffensiveThe ArmisticeThe End of the Ottoman EmpireThe Settlement at ParisObstacles the Peacemakers FacedThe PeaceWorld War I and Colonial EmpiresEvaluating the Peace CHAPTER 27 The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and DepressionAfter Versailles: Demands for Revision and EnforcementToward the Great Depression in EuropeFinancial TailspinProblems in Agricultural CommoditiesDepression and Government Policy in Britain and FranceThe Soviet Experiment War CommunismThe New Economic PolicyThe Third InternationalStalin versus TrotskyThe Decision for Rapid IndustrializationThe Collectivization of AgricultureThe PurgesThe Fascist Experiment in ItalyThe Rise of MussoliniThe Fascists in PowerGerman Democracy and DictatorshipThe Weimar Republic Depression and Political DeadlockHitler Comes to PowerHitler's Consolidation of PowerAnti-Semitism and the Police StateRacial Ideology and the Lives of WomenNazi Economic PolicyTrials of the Successor States in Eastern EuropeEconomic and Ethnic PressuresPoland: Democracy to Military RuleCzechoslovakia: A Viable Democratic ExperimentHungary: Turmoil and AuthoritarianismAustria: Political Turmoil and Nazi OccupationSoutheastern Europe: Royal Dictatorships PART 6: GLOBAL CONFLICT, COLD WAR, AND NEW DIRECTIONS CHAPTER 28 World War IIAgain the Road to War (1933-1939)Hitler's goalsItaly Attacks EthiopiaRemilitarization of the RhinelandThe Spanish Civil WarAustria and CzechoslovakiaMunichThe Nazi-Soviet PactWorld War II (1939-1945)The German Conquest of EuropeThe Battle of BritainThe German Attack on RussiaHitler's Plans for EuropeJapan and the United States Enter the WarThe Defeat of Nazi GermanyThe Tide TurnsFall of the Japanese EmpireThe Cost of WarRacism and the HolocaustThe Destruction of the Polish Jewish CommunityPolish Anti-Semitism Between the WarsThe Nazi Assault on the Jews of PolandExplanations of the HolocaustThe Domestic FrontsGermany: From Apparent Victory to DefeatFrance: Defeat, Collaboration, and ResistanceGreat Britain: Organization for VictoryThe Soviet Union: "The Great Patriotic War"Preparations for PeaceThe Atlantic CharterTehran: Agreement on a Second FrontYaltaPotsdam CHAPTER 29 The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New EuropeThe Emergence of the Cold WarContainment in American Foreign PolicySoviet Domination of Eastern EuropeThe Postwar Division of GermanyNATO and the Warsaw PactThe Creation of the State of IsraelThe Korean WarThe Khrushchev Era in the Soviet UnionKhruschev's Domestic PoliciesThe Three Crises of 1956Later Cold War ConfrontationsThe Berlin WallThe Cuban Missile CrisisThe Brezhnev Era1968: The Invasion of CzechoslovakiaThe U.S. and DetenteThe Invasion of AfghanistanCommunism and Solidarity in PolandRelations with the Reagan AdministrationDecolonization: The European Retreat from EmpireMajor Areas of Colonial WithdrawalIndiaFurther British Retreat from EmpireThe Turmoil of French DecolonizationFrance and AlgeriaFrance and VietnamVietnam Drawn into the Cold WarDirect United States. InvolvementThe Collapse of European CommunismGorbachev Attempts to Reform the Soviet Union1989: Revolution in Eastern EuropeThe Collapse of the Soviet UnionThe Yelstsin DecadeThe Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War Putin and the Resurgence of RussiaThe Rise of Radical Political IslamismArab NationalismThe Iranian RevolutionAfghanistan and Radical IslamismA Transformed West CHAPTER 30 The West at the Dawn of the Twenty-First CenturyThe Twentieth-Century Movement of PeoplesDisplacement through WarExternal and Internal MigrationThe New Muslim PopulationEuropean Population TrendsToward a Welfare State SocietyChristian Democratic PartiesThe Creation of Welfare StatesResistance to the Expansion of the Welfare StateNew Patterns in the Work and Expectations of WomenFeminismMore Married Women in the WorkforceNew Work PatternsWomen in the New Eastern EuropeTransformations in Knowledge and CultureCommunism and Western EuropeExistentialismExpansion of the University Population and Student RebellionThe Americanization of EuropeA Consumer SocietyEnvironmentalismArt Since World War IICultural Divisions and the Cold WarMemory of the HolocaustThe Christian HeritageNeo-OrthodoxyLiberal TheologyRoman Catholic ReformLate-Twentieth-Century Technology: The Arrival of the ComputerThe Demand for Calculating MachinesEarly Computer Technology The Development of Desktop ComputersThe Challenges of European UnificationPostwar CooperationThe European Economic CommunityThe European UnionDiscord over the Union THE WEST AND THE WORLD: ENERGY AND THE MODERN WORLD

About the Author

Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958-1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004. Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250-1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister's Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and "Why We Study Western Civ," The Public Interest 158 (2005). Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993), and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

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