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Windows Server 2012 Unleashed

This is the most comprehensive and realistic guide to Windows Server 2012 planning, design, prototyping, implementation, migration, administration, and support. Extensively updated, it contains unsurpassed independent and objective coverage of Windows Server 2012's key innovations, including improved virtualization components, enhanced security tools, new web and management resources, and Windows 8 integration. Windows Server 2012 Unleashed reflects the authors' extraordinary experience implementing Windows Server 2012 in large-scale environments since its earliest alpha releases, reaching back more than two years prior to its official launch. Microsoft MVP Rand Morimoto and his colleagues fully address every aspect of deploying and operating Windows Server 2012, including Active Directory, networking and core application services, security, migration from Windows Server 2003/2008, administration, fault tolerance, optimization, troubleshooting, and much more. Valuable for Windows professionals at all skill levels, this book will be especially indispensable for intermediate-to-advanced level professionals seeking expert, in-depth solutions. Every chapter contains tips, tricks, best practices, and lessons learned from actual deployments: practical information for using Windows Server 2012 to solve real business problems. Plan and migrate from Windows Server 2003 and 2008 Leverage powerful capabilities that are truly new in Windows Server 2012 Install Windows Server 2012 and the GUI-less Windows Server Core Upgrade to Windows Server 2012 Active Directory Utilize advanced AD capabilities including federated forests and identity management Plan and deploy network services, from DNS and DHCP to IPv6, IPAM, and IIS Protect systems and data with server-level security, transport-level security, and security policies Deliver true end-to-end secured anytime/anywhere access to remote/mobile clients Efficiently configure and manage users, sites, OUs, domains, and for ests through Server Manager console Create more fault-tolerant environ ments with DFS, clustering, and Network Load Balancing Leverage major Hyper-V virtualization improvements in availability, redun dancy, and guest support Manage Active Directory more efficiently with Active Directory Administrative Center, Best Practice Analyzer, and PowerShell scripts Systematically tune, optimize, debug, and troubleshoot Windows Server 2012
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Table of Contents

Introduction 1 Part I Windows Server 2012 Overview 1 Windows Server 2012 Technology Primer 5 When Is the Right Time to Migrate? 15 Versions of Windows Server 2012 16 Improvements for Continuous Availability 20 Enhancements for Flexible Identity and Security 23 Enabling Users to Work Anywhere 29 Simplifying the Datacenter 35 Addition of Migration Tools 44 Identifying Which Windows Server 2012 Service to Install or Migrate to First 45 Summary 49 Best Practices 49 2 Planning, Prototyping, Migrating, and Deploying Windows Server 2012 51 Determining the Scope of Your Project 52 Identifying the Business Goals and Objectives to Implement Windows Server 2012 52 Identifying the Technical Goals and Objectives to Implement Windows Server 2012 55 The Discovery Phase: Understanding the Existing Environment 61 The Design Phase: Documenting the Vision and the Plan 64 The Migration Planning Phase: Documenting the Process for Migration 69 The Prototype Phase: Creating and Testing the Plan 74 The Pilot Phase: Validating the Plan to a Limited Number of Users 76 The Migration/Implementation Phase: Conducting the Migration or Installation 79 Summary 80 Best Practices 81 3 Installing Windows Server 2012 and Server Core 85 Planning for a Server Installation 85 Installing a Clean Version of Windows Server 2012 Operating System 91 Upgrading to Windows Server 2012 99 Understanding Server Core Installation 103 Managing and Configuring a Server Core Installation 105 Performing an Unattended Windows Server 2012 Installation 113 Summary 113 Best Practices 113 Part II Windows Server 2012 Active Directory 4 Active Directory Domain Services Primer 115 The Evolution of Directory Services 116 Understanding the Development of AD DS 117 AD DS Structure 118 Outlining AD DS Components 121 Understanding Domain Trusts 125 Defining Organizational Units 127 Outlining the Role of Groups in an AD DS Environment 128 Understanding AD DS Replication 130 Outlining the Role of DNS in AD DS 132 Outlining AD DS Security 134 Outlining AD DS Changes in Windows Server 2012 135 Summary 146 Best Practices 146 5 Designing a Windows Server 2012 Active Directory 149 Understanding AD DS Domain Design 149 Choosing a Domain Namespace 151 Examining Domain Design Features 152 Choosing a Domain Structure 154 Understanding the Single-Domain Model 155 Understanding the Multiple-Domain Model 158 Understanding the Multiple Trees in a Single-Forest Model 160 Understanding the Federated-Forests Model 162 Understanding the Empty-Root Domain Model 165 Understanding the Placeholder Domain Model 167 Understanding the Special-Purpose Domain Model 169 Renaming an AD DS Domain 170 Summary 173 Best Practices 173 6 Designing Organizational Unit and Group Structure 175 Defining Organizational Units in AD DS 176 Defining AD Groups 178 OU and Group Design 182 Starting an OU Design 182 Using OUs to Delegate Administration 184 Group Policies and OU Design 186 Understanding Group Design 186 Exploring Sample Design Models 188 Summary 193 Best Practices 194 7 Active Directory Infrastructure 195 Understanding AD DS Replication in Depth 195 Understanding Active Directory Sites 200 Planning Replication Topology 207 Windows Server 2012 IPv6 Support 214 Detailing Real-World Replication Designs 216 Deploying Read-Only Domain Controllers 220 Deploying a Clone Virtualized DC 223 Summary 226 Best Practices 226 8 Creating Federated Forests and Lightweight Directories 229 Keeping a Distributed Environment in Sync 229 Active Directory Federation Services 235 Synchronizing Directory Information with Forefront Identity Manager 238 Harnessing the Power and Potential of FIM 241 Summary 244 Best Practices 244 9 Integrating AD in a Unix Environment 245 Understanding and Using Windows Server 2012 UNIX Integration Components 245 Reviewing the Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications 252 Administrative Improvements with Windows Server 2012 253 Summary 255 Best Practices 255 Part III Networking Services 10 Domain Name System, WINS, and DNSSEC 257 The Need for DNS 258 Getting Started with DNS on Windows Server 2012 262 Resource Records 265 Understanding DNS Zones 269 Performing Zone Transfers 273 Understanding DNS Queries 276 Other DNS Components 277 Understanding the Evolution of Microsoft DNS 285 DNS in Windows Server 2012 286 DNS in an Active Directory Domain Services Environment 288 Troubleshooting DNS 292 Secure DNS with DNSSEC 301 Reviewing the Windows Internet Naming Service 308 Installing and Configuring WINS 308 Planning, Migrating, and Maintaining WINS 312 Summary 316 Best Practices 316 11 DHCP, IPv6, IPAM 319 Understanding the Components of an Enterprise Network 319 Exploring DHCP 321 Exploring DHCP Changes in Windows Server 2012 329 Enhancing DHCP Reliability 336 Exploring Advanced DHCP Concepts 347 Securing DHCP 348 IPv6 Introduction 349 Configuring IPv6 on Windows Server 2012 360 IP Address Management 367 Installing the IPAM Server and Client Features 368 Exploring the IPAM Console 382 Summary 385 Best Practices 385 12 Internet Information Services 387 Understanding Internet Information Services 8 387 Planning and Designing IIS 8 391 Installing and Upgrading IIS 8 393 Installing and Configuring Websites 399 Installing and Configuring FTP Services 408 Securing IIS 8 418 Summary 426 Best Practices 427 Part IV Security 13 Sever-Level Security 429 Defining Windows Server 2012 Security 429 Deploying Physical Security 430 Using the Integrated Windows Firewall with Advanced Security 433 Hardening Servers 437 Examining File-Level Security 445 Malware and Backup Protection 450 Using Windows Server Update Services 452 Summary 457 Best Practices 458 14 Securing Data in Transit 459 Introduction to Securing Data in Transit in Windows Server 2012 460 Deploying a Public Key Infrastructure with Windows Server 2012 461 Understanding Active Directory Certificate Services in Windows Server 2012 463 Active Directory Rights Management Services 472 Using IPsec Encryption with Windows Server 2012 475 Summary 477 Best Practices 478 15 Network Policy Server, Network Access Protection and Routing and Remote Access 479 Understanding Network Access Protection in Windows Server 2012 480 Deploying a Windows Server 2012 Network Policy Server 482 Enforcing Policy Settings with a Network Policy Server 485 Verifying the Client-Side Configuration 492 Deploying a Virtual Private Network Using RRAS 494 Summary 500 Best Practices 501 Part V Migrating to Windows Server 2012 16 Migrating from Active Directory 2008 / 2008 R2 to Active Directory 2012 503 Beginning the Migration Process 504 Big Bang Migration 507 Phased Migration 512 Multiple Domain Consolidation Migration 527 Summary 542 Best Practices 543 17 Compatibility Testing 545 The Importance of Compatibility Testing 546 Preparing for Compatibility Testing 547 Researching Products and Applications 553 Verifying Compatibility with Vendors 556 Microsoft Assessment and Planning Toolkit 562 Lab-Testing Existing Applications 562 Documenting the Results of the Compatibility Testing 565 Determining Whether a Prototype Phase Is Required 565 Summary 566 Best Practices 567 Part VI Windows Server 2012 Administration and Management 18 Windows Server 2012 Administration 569 Defining the Administrative Model 570 Examining Active Directory Site Administration 571 Configuring Sites 574 Windows Server 2012 Active Directory Groups 582 Creating Groups 583 Managing Users with Local Security and Group Policies 588 Managing Printers with the Print Management Console 596 Summary 602 Best Practices 602 19 Windows Server 2012 Group Policies and Policy Management 605 Group Policy Overview 605 Group Policy Processing: How Does It Work? 607 Local Group Policies 609 Domain-Based Group Policies 611 Security Templates 611 Understanding Group Policy 612 Group Policy Policies Node 625 Group Policy Preferences Node 628 Policy Management Tools 628 Designing a Group Policy Infrastructure 637 GPO Administrative Tasks 641 Summary 660 Best Practices 661 20 Windows Server 2012 Management and Maintenance Practices 663 Going Green with Windows Server 2012 664 Server Manager Dashboard 665 Managing Windows Server 2012 Roles and Features 667 Creating a Server Group 672 Viewing Events 672 Server Manager Storage Page 682 Auditing the Environment 686 Managing Windows Server 2012 Remotely 695 Common Practices for Securing and Managing Windows Server 2012 701 Keeping Up with Service Packs and Updates 703 Maintaining Windows Server 2012 707 Summary 717 Best Practices 717 21 Automating Tasks Using PowerShell Scripting 719 Understanding Shells 720 Introduction to PowerShell 722 Understanding PowerShell Fundamentals 724 Using Windows PowerShell 751 Summary 782 Best Practices 783 22 Documenting a Windows Server 2012 Environment 785 Benefits of Documentation 786 Types of Documents 787 Planning to Document the Windows Server 2012 Environment 788 Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Management 788 Windows Server 2012 Project Documents 789 Administration and Maintenance Documents 802 Network Infrastructure 806 Disaster Recovery Documentation 807 Change Management Procedures 810 Performance Documentation 810 Baselining Records for Documentation Comparisons 811 Routine Reporting 811 Security Documentation 812 Summary 813 Best Practices 813 23 Integrating System Center Operations Manager 2012 with Windows Server 2012 815 Windows Server 2012 Monitoring 816 Understanding How OpsMgr Works 818 OpsMgr Architecture Components 823 Securing OpsMgr 834 Fault Tolerance and Disaster Recovery 839 Understanding OpsMgr Components 845 Putting It All Together in a Design 850 Installing Operations Manager 2012 858 Configuring OpsMgr 873 Administering OpsMgr 882 Exploring the Windows 2012 Management Pack 889 Summary 900 Best Practices 900 Part VII Remote and Mobile Technologies 24 Server-to-Client Remote and Mobile Access 903 What's New for Remote Access in Windows Server 2012 905 VPN in Windows Server 2012 907 RAS System Authentication Options 911 VPN Protocols 913 DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 918 Choosing Between Traditional VPN Technologies and DirectAccess 928 Setting Up the Unified Remote Access Role 932 DirectAccess Scenario 933 VPN Scenario 941 Monitoring the Remote Access Server 958 Summary 962 Best Practices 963 25 Remote Desktop Services 965 Why Implement Remote Desktop Services? 966 How Remote Desktop Works 968 Understanding the Name Change 970 RDS Roles 971 Configuration Options and Fine-Tuning Terminology 979 Planning for RDS 985 Deploying RDS 991 Deploying Virtual Desktops 1003 Enabling RemoteFX 1011 Securing and Supporting RDS 1013 Summary 1017 Best Practices 1017 Part VIII Desktop Administration 26 Windows Server 2012 Administration Tools for Desktops 1019 Managing Desktops and Servers 1020 Operating System Deployment Options 1021 Windows Server 2012 Windows Deployment Services 1024 Installing Windows Deployment Services 1026 Customizing Boot Images 1037 Creating Discover Images 1041 Pre-Creating Active Directory Computer Accounts for WDS (Prestaged Systems) 1042 Creating Custom Installations Using Capture Images 1046 Automating Image Deployment Using Unattend Files 1049 General Desktop Administration Tasks 1050 Summary 1050 Best Practices 1050 27 Group Policy Management for Network Clients 1053 The Need for Group Policies 1054 Windows Group Policies 1055 Group Policy Feature Set 1058 Planning Workgroup and Standalone Local Group Policy Configuration 1063 Planning Domain Group Policy Objects 1066 Managing Computers with Domain Policies 1075 Configuring Preference Item-Level Targeting 1083 Managing Users with Policies 1093 Managing Active Directory with Policies 1100 Summary 1112 Best Practices 1112 Part IX Fault Tolerance Technologies 28 File System Management and Fault Tolerance 1115 Windows Server 2012 File System Overview 1115 File System Access Services and Technologies 1125 Managing Windows Server 2012 Disks 1126 Adding the File and Storage Services Role 1132 Managing Data Access Using Windows Server 2012 Shares 1133 File Server Resource Manager 1137 The Distributed File System 1149 Planning a DFS Deployment 1154 Installing and Configuring DFS 1157 Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service 1163 Configuring Data Deduplication 1166 Configuring Storage Spaces 1168 Dynamic Access Control 1172 Summary 1185 Best Practices 1186 29 System-Level Fault Tolerance (Clustering / Network Load Balancing) 1189 Building Fault-Tolerant Windows Server 2012 Systems 1190 Windows Server 2012 Clustering Technologies 1192 Determining the Correct Clustering Technology 1198 Overview of Failover Clusters 1200 Deploying Failover Clusters 1206 Backing Up and Restoring Failover Clusters 1228 Deploying Network Load Balancing Clusters 1232 Managing NLB Clusters 1240 Network Teaming 1242 Summary 1243 Best Practices 1243 30 Backing Up the Windows Server 2012 Environment 1245 Understanding Your Backup and Recovery Needs and Options 1246 Creating the Disaster Recovery Solution 1249 Documenting the Enterprise 1250 Developing a Backup Strategy 1251 Windows Server Backup Overview 1252 Using Windows Server Backup 1255 Managing Backups Using the Command-Line Utility Wbadmin.exe and Windows PowerShell Cmdlets 1261 Backing Up Active Directory 1264 Backing Up Windows Server 2012 Roles 1269 Volume Shadow Copy Service 1270 Extending Server Backup to the Enterprise with Data Protection Manager 2012 1271 Summary 1271 Best Practices 1272 31 Recovering from a Disaster 1273 Ongoing Backup and Recovery Preparedness 1273 When Disasters Strike 1277 Disaster Scenario Troubleshooting 1279 Recovering from a Server or System Failure 1282 Managing and Accessing Windows Server Backup Media 1289 Windows Server Backup Volume Recovery 1290 Recovering Role Services and Features 1294 Summary 1301 Best Practices 1301 Part X Optimizing, Tuning, Debugging, and Problem Solving 32 Optimizing Windows 2012 for Branch Office Communications 1303 Key Branch Office Features in Windows 2012 1304 Understanding Read-Only Domain Controllers 1304 Using BitLocker with Windows Server 2012 1321 BranchCache in Windows 2012 1332 Printing with Branch Office Direct Printing 1345 Summary 1347 Best Practices 1347 33 Logging and Debugging 1349 Using the Task Manager for Logging and Debugging 1349 Using Event Viewer for Logging and Debugging 1357 Performance Monitoring 1368 Setting Baseline Values 1395 Using the Debugging Tools Available in Windows Server 2012 1397 Task Scheduler 1411 Summary 1416 Best Practices 1417 34 Capacity Analysis and Performance Optimization 1419 Defining Capacity Analysis 1419 Using Capacity-Analysis Tools 1424 Monitoring System Performance 1442 Optimizing Performance by Server Roles 1451 Summary 1457 Best Practices 1458 Part XI Integrated Windows Application Services 35 Sharepoint 2010 Products 1459 History of SharePoint Technologies 1460 SharePoint Foundation 2010 Versus SharePoint Server 2010 1462 Identifying the Need for SharePoint 2010 Products 1466 Designing a SharePoint 2010 Farm 1467 Exploring a Basic SharePoint 2010 Site 1471 Lists and Libraries in SharePoint 2010 1474 Managing the Site Collection 1486 Summary 1494 Best Practices 1494 36 Deploying and Using Windows Virtualization 1497 Understanding Microsoft's Virtualization Strategy 1497 Integration of Hypervisor Technology in Windows Server 2012 1500 Planning Your Implementation of Hyper-V 1504 Installing the Microsoft Hyper-V Role 1507 Becoming Familiar with the Hyper-V Administrative Console 1510 Installing a Guest Operating System Session 1516 Modifying Guest Session Configuration Settings 1520 Launching a Hyper-V Guest Session 1523 Using Snapshots of Guest Operating System Sessions 1525 Quick Migration and Live Migration 1527 Utilizing Hyper-V Replica for Site-to-Site Redundancy 1540 Summary 1547 Best Practices 1548 Index 1549

About the Author

Rand Morimoto, Ph.D., MVP, MCITP, CISSP, has been in the computer industry for more than 30 years and has authored, coauthored, or been a contributing writer for dozens of books on Windows, Security, Exchange, BizTalk, and Remote and Mobile Computing. Rand is the president of Convergent Computing, an IT-consulting firm in the San Francisco Bay area that has been one of the key early adopter program partners with Microsoft, implementing the latest Microsoft technologies, including Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, System Center 2012, Windows 7, Exchange Server 2013, Windows Server 2012, and SharePoint 2010 in production environments more than 18 months before the initial product releases. Michael Noel, MCITP, MVP, is an internationally recognized technology expert, bestselling author, and well-known public speaker on a broad range of IT topics. He authored multiple major industry books that have been translated into more than a dozen languages worldwide. Michael has presented at over one hundred technical and business conferences in more than fifty countries around the world and on all seven continents, including the first ever IT conference in Antarctica. Currently a partner at Convergent Computing ( in the San Francisco Bay area, Michael's writing and extensive public-speaking experience across all seven continents leverage his real-world expertise in helping organizations realize business value from Information Technology infrastructure. Guy Yardeni, MCITP, CISSP, MVP, is an accomplished infrastructure architect, author, and overall geek-for-hire. Guy has been working in the IT industry for more than 15 years and has extensive experience designing, implementing, and supporting enterprise technology solutions. Guy is an expert at connecting business requirements to technology solutions and driving to successful completion the technical details of the effort while maintaining overall goals and vision. Guy maintains a widely read technical blog at and is a Windows MVP. Omar Droubi, MCSE, MCTS, has maintained a successful career and delivered quality work as a senior Information Technology professional for more than 20 years by keeping current with the latest technological developments and trends. As a writer, he has coauthored several Sams Publishing best-selling books, including Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Unleashed, Windows Server 2008 Unleashed, and Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed. Omar has also been a contributing writer and technical reviewer on several Microsoft Exchange Server books and publications. He has been deeply involved in testing, designing, and prototyping Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 for the past several years and plans to assist organizations in getting the most out of the latest features included in the products. Andrew Abbate enjoys the position of principal consultant and partner at Convergent Computing. With nearly 20 years of experience in IT, Andrew's area of expertise is understanding a business's needs and translating that to process and technologies to solve real problems. Having worked with companies from the Fortune Ten to companies of 10, Andrew has a unique perspective on IT and a grasp on "big picture" consulting. Andrew has also written eight industry books on varying technologies ranging from Windows to Security to Unified Communications. Chris Amaris, MCITP, MCTS, CISSP/ISSAP, CHS III, is the chief technology officer and cofounder of Convergent Computing. He has more than 20 years experience consulting for Fortune 500 companies, leading companies in the technology selection, design, planning, and implementation of complex information technology projects. Chris has worked with Microsoft System Center products such as Operations Manager and Configuration Manager since their original releases in 2000 and 1994. He specializes in messaging, security, performance tuning, systems management, and migration. Receiving his first Microsoft technologies certification in 1993, Chris is a current Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP) with multiple Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) certifications in System Center technologies, a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) with an Information System Security Architecture Professional (ISSAP) concentration, Certified Homeland Security (CHS III), a Novell CNE, a Banyan CBE, and a Certified Project Manager. Chris is also an author, writer, and technical editor for a number of IT books, including System Center 2012 Unleashed, Network Security for Government and Corporate Executives, Exchange 2010 Unleashed , and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed.

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