Introduction. Malnutrition: What Are the Facts? Famines. Malnutrition Defined. Measuring Undernutrition. Impacts of Undernutrition. Undernutrition: Who, When, Where? Causes of Undernutrition. Economics and the Concept of Food Security. It Is Not Food Versus Population. Income Distribution and Undernutrition. Other Factors Influencing Demand for Food. Agricultural Land and Water. Agricultural Production and the Environment. Increasing Yields and Input Use. Increasing Yields and New Technology. The Interaction Between Health and Undernutrition. Policy Approaches to Undernutrition. Philosophical Approaches to Undernutrition. Policies Aimed at Raising the Incomes of the Poor. Policies Aimed at Demographic Causes of Undernutrition. Policies Aimed at Lowering the Price of Food through Subsidized Consumption. Policies Aimed at Improving Access to Food: It's All About Distribution (Isn't It?). Policies that Raise Prices Paid to Farmers: Direct Subsidies and Eliminating Urban Bias. Policies Aimed at Lowering the Price of Food by Increasing the Supply. World Food Supply and Demand for the next half-Century: Some Alternative Scenarios.
Howard D. Leathers is associate professor of agricultural and resource economics and Phillips Foster is professor emeritus of agricultural and resource economics at the University of Maryland, College Park.