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The World of Psychology


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Table of Contents

BRIEF TOC CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Psychology CHAPTER 2: Biology and Behavior CHAPTER 3: Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 4: States of Consciousness CHAPTER 5: Learning CHAPTER 6: Memory CHAPTER 7: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence CHAPTER 8: Child Development CHAPTER 9: Adolescence and Adulthood CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 11: Human Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 12: Health and Stress CHAPTER 13: Personality Theory and Assessment CHAPTER 14: Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 15: Therapies CHAPTER 16: Social Psychology APPENDIX A: Statistical Methods APPENDIX B: Psychology in the Workplace DETAILED TOC: CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Psychology An Introduction to the World of Psychology APPLY IT: Best Practices for Effective Studying The Scientific Method The Goals of Psychology Exploring Psychology's Roots Structuralism Funtionalism The Changing Face of Psychology Schools of Thought in Psychology Behaviorism Psychoanalysis Humanistic Psychology Cognitive Psychology Evolutionary Psychology Biological (Physiological) Psychology The Sociocultural Approach Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism Thinking about Theories and Research Evaluating Theories Evaluating Research Descriptive Research Methods Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation The Case Study Survey Research TRY IT: Can Small Samples Really Be Representative? The Correlational Method The Experimental Method Experiments and Hypothesis Testsing Independent and Dependent Variables Experimental and Control Groups Sources of Bias in Experimental Research Limitations of the Experimental Method Participants in Psychological Research Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research Protecting Research Participants' Rights The Use of Animals in Research Psychologists at Work Specialties in Psychology Majoring in Psychology CHAPTER 2: Biology and Behavior The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters The Structure of the Neuron Communication between Neurons Neurotransmitters: The Neuron's Messengers The Variety of Neurotransmitters The Human Nervous System Central Nervous System: The Spinal Cord Central Nervous System: The Hindbrain Central Nervous System: The Midbrain Central Nervous System: The Forebrain The Peripheral Nervous System A Closer Look at the Brain Components of the Cerebrum The Cerebral Hemispheres TRY IT: A Balancing Act The Frontal Lobes The Parietal Lobes The Occipital Lobes The Temporal Lobes The Brain across the Life Span Gender Differences in the Adult Brain Discovering the Brain's Mysteries The EEG and the Microelectrode The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques The Endocrine System Genes and Behavioral Genetics The Mechanisms of Heredity APPLY IT: Should You Consult a Genetic Counselor? Behavioral Genetics CHAPTER 3: Sensation and Perception The Process of Sensation The Absolute and Difference Thresholds Transduction and Adaptation TRY IT: Sensory Adaptation Vision The Eye Vision and the Brain TRY IT: Vision Color Vision Theories of Color Vision TRY IT: A Negative Afterimage Hearing Sound The Ear Theories of Hearing Hearing Loss The Other Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Balance Smell Taste Touch Pain Balance and Movement Principles of Perception Perceptual Organization Depth Perception Motion Perception Puzzling Perceptions Influences on Perception Attention Prior Knowledge APPLY IT: How Dangerous Is It to Talk on a Cell Phone While Driving? TRY IT: Bottom-Up Processing Social Perception Unusual Perceptual Experiences CHAPTER 4: States of Consciousness What is Consciousness? Changing Views of Consciousness Culture and Altered States of Consciousness Circadian Rhythms The Biology of Circadian Rhythms Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms Circadian Timing and Neurological Disorders Sleep Why Do We Sleep? Types of Sleep: NREM and REM Sleep Cycles REM Sleep and Memory Variations in Sleep Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders APPLY IT: How to Get a Good Night's Sleep Dreams The Content of Dreams Interpreting Dreams Meditation and Hypnosis Meditation TRY IT: The Relaxation Response Hypnosis Psychoactive Drugs How Drugs Affect the Brain The Behavioral Effects of Stimulants The Behavioral Effects of Depressants The Behavioral Effects of Hallucinogens Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Abuse Drug Addiction Herbal Remedies and Supplements CHAPTER 5: Learning Classical Conditioning: The Original View Pavlov and Classical Conditioning The Process of Classical Conditioning Changing Conditioned Responses John Watson and Emotional Conditioning Classical Conditioning: The Contemporary View The Cognitive Perspective Biological Predispositions Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life TRY IT: Cues in Commercials Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Thorndike and the Law of Effect The Process of Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement Factors Influencing Operant Conditioning Punishment Escape and Avoidance Learning APPLY IT: How to Win the Battle Against Procrastination Applications of Operant Conditioning TRY IT: Using Behavior Modification Cognitive Learning Learning by Insight Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps Observational Learning Learning from Media CHAPTER 6: Memory The Structure of Human Memory The Information-Processing Approach Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory APPLY IT: Improving Memory with Mnemonic Devices The Nature of Remembering Three Types of Memory Tasks The Serial Position Effect Context and Memory Memory as Reconstruction Memory in Everyday Life Flashbulb and Photographic Memories Memory and Culture Eyewitness Testimony The Repressed Memory Controversy Biology and Memory The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Region Neuronal Changes and Memory Hormones and Memory Memory Loss Forgetting Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgetting The Causes of Forgetting TRY IT: A Penny for Your Thoughts Improving Memory TRY IT: Organizing for Memory Improvement CHAPTER 7: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence Cognition Reasoning Imagery Concepts Decision Making Problem Solving TRY IT: Water Lily Problem TRY IT: Duncker's Candle Problem Artificial Intelligence Language The Structure of Language Language and Thinking Learning a Second Language Animal Communication Intelligence The Nature of Intelligence Measuring Intelligence Requirements of Good Tests APPLY IT: How to Build a Powerful Vocabulary The Bell Curve Giftedness Mental Retardation Learning Disabilities Explaining Difference in Cognitive Abilities The Heritability of Intelligence Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable? Race and IQ Culture, IQ, and Achievement Beyond Intelligence Emotional Intelligence TRY IT: Find Your EQ Creativity Savant Syndrome CHAPTER 8: Child Development Developmental Psychology: Basic Issues and Methodology Controversial Issues in Developmental Psychology Approaches to Studying Developmental Change Prenatal Development The Milestones of Prenatal Development Fetal Behavior Negative Influences on Prenatal Development Infancy Reflexes and Motor Development Sensory and Perceptual Development Learning Temperament Attachment The Father-Child Relationship Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Schemes: The Foundation of Cognitive Development Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development TRY IT: Conservation of Volume An Evaluation of Piaget's Contribution Other Approaches to Cognitive Development Vygotsky's Sociocultural View The Information-Processing Approach Language Development The Sequence of Language Development Theories of Language Development Learning to Read Social Development The Parents' Role in the Socialization Process Peer Relationships Television as a Socializing Agent Culture and Child Development APPLY IT: Choosing a Nonparental Care Arrangement CHAPTER 9: Adolescence and Adulthood The Lifespan Perspective Erikson's Psychosocial Theory The Identity Crisis Generativity Adolescence Puberty Cognitive Development Moral Development Parental Relationships The Peer Group Emerging Adulthood TRY IT: Emerging Adulthood Early and Middle Adulthood Physical Changes Intellectual Abilities The Impact of College Attendance Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood APPLY IT: Where Are You in the Career Development Process? Later Adulthood Physical Changes in Later Adulthood TRY IT: Stereotypes about Later Adulthood Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood Alzheimer's Disease-The Most Common Dementia Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly Death and Dying CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion Foundations of Motivation The Components of Motivation Types of Motivation Biological Approaches to Motivation Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Approaches to Motivation TRY IT: What is Your N Ach? Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Two Primary Drives: Thirst and Hunger Thirst Internal and External Hunger Cues Explaining Variations in Body Weight Weight Loss Strategies Eating Disorders Understanding Emotion Explainin the Components of Emotions Theories of Emotion Emotion and the Brain Expressing Emotion The Range of Emotion The Development of Facial Expressions The Universality of Facial Expressions TRY IT: Recognizing Basic Emotions Cultural Rules for Displaying Emotion Emotion as a Form of Communication The Art and Science of Lie Detection Experiencing Emotion The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis APPLY IT: The Quest for Happiness Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotion Emotion and Cognition Love CHAPTER 11: Human Sexuality and Gender Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles Biological Sex Psychological Gender Early Theories of Gender Role Development The Multidimensional Approach to Gender Roles Gender Schema Theory Evolutionary Theory TRY IT: Waist-Hip Ratios Gender Differences Thinking about Gender Differences Cognitive Abilities Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Personality Sexual Attitudes and Behavior Influences on Sexual Attitudes and Behavior APPLY IT: Rules for Internet Dating Sexual Desire and Arousal Sexual Orientation Determinants of Sexual Orientation Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians Gay and Lesbian Relationships Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual Desire Disorders Sexual Arousal Disorders Orgasmic and Sexual Pain Disorders Sexually Transmitted Diseases TRY IT: Mayo Clinic STD Quiz: What You Don't Know Can Hurt You Bacterial STDs Viral STDs Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) TRY IT: Knowledge About AIDS CHAPTER 12: Health and Stress Sources of Stress Life Events: Big and Small Daily Hassles and Uplifts TRY IT: Finding a Life Stress Score Conflicts and Controllability Stress in the Workplace TRY IT: Sources of Stress in Your Life Catastrophic Events Racism and Stress Socioeconomic Status and Stress Responding to Stress Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome Lazarus's Cognitive Theory of Stress Coping Strategies Health and Illness Two Approaches to Health and Illness Coronary Heart Disease Cancer The Immune System and Stress Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness Gender and Health Race and Health Lifestyle and Health Smoking and Health APPLY IT: Interpreting Health Information on the Internet Alcohol Abuse Diet Exercise Alternative Medicine CHAPTER 13: Personality Theory and Assessment Psychoanalytic Theories The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious The Id, the Ego, and the Superego The Psychosexual Stages of Development Evaluating Freud's Contribution The Neo-Freudians Humanistic Theories Two Humanistic Theories Self-Esteem TRY IT: Gauging Your Self-Esteem Trait Theories Early Trait Theories TRY IT: Allport's Trait Theory The Five-Factor Model Origins and Stability of the Five Factors Culture and Personality Traits Social-Cognitive Theories The Situation-Trait Debate Reciprocal Determinism Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control Personality Assessment Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales Personality Inventories APPLY IT: Put Your Best Foot Forward Projective Tests CHAPTER 14: Psychological Disorders Defining Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal? Classifying Psychological Disorders Explaining Psychological Disorders Prevalence of Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia. Generalized Anxiety Disorders and Phobias APPLY IT: Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking TRY IT: Phobia Names Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder Culture, Gender, and Depression Bipolar Disorder Explaining Mood Disorders Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age Schizophrenia Age, Gender, and Schizophrenia Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Types of Schizophrenia Explaining Schizophrenia Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders Personality Disorders Characteristics of Personality Disorders Types of Personality Disorders Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood Pervasive Developmental Disorders Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder CHAPTER 15: Therapies Insight Therapies Psychodynamic Therapies Interpersonal Therapy Humanistic Therapies Gestalt Therapy Relationship Therapies Couple Therapy Family Therapy Group Therapy Behavior Therapies Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning Behavior Therapies Based on Other Learning Theories TRY IT: A Possible Hierarchy of Fears Cognitive Therapies Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Beck's Cognitive Therapy Biomedical Therapies Drug Therapy Psychiatric Drugs for Children and Adolescents Electroconvulsive Therapy Psychosurgery Evaluating the Therapies The Therapeutic Relationship Choosing a Therapist APPLY IT: Is E-Therapy Right for You? Culturally-Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapy CHAPTER 16: Social Psychology Social Perception Impression Formation Attribution Attraction Factors Influencing Attraction Physical Attractiveness Romantic Attraction and Mating TRY IT: Choosing a Life Partner Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance Conformity Obedience Compliance Group Influence Social Facilitation Social Loafing Social Roles Attitudes and Attitude Change Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance Persuasion Prosocial Behavior Reasons for Helping The Bystander Effect Aggression Biological Factors in Aggression Other Influences on Aggression The Social Learning Theory of Aggression Sexual Aggression Prejudice and Aggression The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination Is Prejudice Decreasing? APPLY IT: "Unlearning" Prejudice Answer Key Appendix A Appendix B References Glossary Name Index Subject Index

About the Author

Samuel E. Wood received his doctorate from the University of Florida. He taught at West Virginia University and the University of Missouri-St. Louis and was a member of the doctoral faculty at both universities. From 1984 to 1996, he served as president of the Higher Education Center, a consortium of 14 colleges and universities in the St. Louis area. He was a cofounder of the Higher Education Cable TV channel (HEC-TV) in St. Louis and served as its president and CEO from its founding in 1987 until 1996. Dr. Wood passed away in 2008. Ellen Green Wood received her doctorate in educational psychology from St. Louis University and was an adjunct professor of psychology at St. Louis Community College at Meramec. She has also taught in the clinical experiences program in education at Washington University and at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. In addition to her teaching, Dr. Wood has developed and taught seminars on critical thinking. She received the Telecourse Pioneer Award from 1982 through 1988 for her contributions to the field of distance learning. Denise Boyd received her Ed.D. in educational psychology from the University of Houston and has been a psychology instructor in the Houston Community College system since 1988. From 1995 until 1998, she chaired the psychology, sociology, and anthropology department at Houston Community College-Central. She has coauthored three other Allyn and Bacon texts: with Helen Bee, Lifespan Development (Fourth Edition) and The Developing Child (Eleventh Edition); and with Genevieve Stevens, Current Readings in Lifespan Development. A licensed psychologist, she has presented a number of papers at professional meetings, reporting research in child, adolescent, and adult development. She has also presented workshops for teachers whose students range from preschool to college. Together, Sam, Evie, and Denise have more than 45 years of experience teaching introductory psychology to thousands of students of all ages, backgrounds, and abilities. The World of Psychology, Seventh Edition is the direct result of their teaching experience.

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