INTRODUCTION CHRONOLOGY Remarks upon the Habits of the Genera Geospiza, Camarhynchus, Cactornis and Certhidea of Gould.  On Certain Areas of Elevation and Subsidence in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, as Deduced from the Study of Coral Formations.  Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle, between the years 1826 and 1836, describing Their Examination of the Southern Shores of South America, and the Beagle's Circumnavigation of the Globe. Vol. III. Journal and Remarks, 1832-1836.  Humble-Bees.  The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs.  Geological Observations on South America.  Does Salt-water Kill Seeds?  Productiveness of Foreign Seed.  On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection.  On the Origin Of Species by Means of Natural Select' ion, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.  Natural Selection.  Fertilisation of Orchids by Insect Agency.  On the Various Contrivances by Which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects, and on the Good Effects of Intercrossing.  Variations Effected by Cultivation.  Recollections of Professor Henslow.  The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication.  Origin of Species.  The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.  Pangenesis.  The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.  Perception in the Lower Animals.  Flowers of the Primrose Destroyed by Birds.  Insectivorous Plants.  The Effects of Cross and Self-Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom.  Sexual Selection in Relation to Monkeys.  The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species.  A Biographical Sketch of an Infant.  Erasmus Darwin.  The Power of Movement in Plants.  A Letter to Frithiof Holmgren; Mr. Darwin on Vivisection.  The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits.  EPILOGUE FURTHER READING.
Charles Robert Darwin was born in 1809 in Shrewsbury, England, to a wealthy intellectual family, his grandfather being the famous physician Erasmus Darwin. At Cambridge University he formed a friendship with J. S. Henslow, a professor of botany, and that association, along with his enthusiasm for collecting beetles, led to "a burning zeal," as he wrote in hisAutobiography, for the natural sciences. When Henslow obtained for him the post of naturalist on H.M.S.Beagle, the course of his life was fixed. The five-year-long voyage to the Southern Hemisphere between 1831 and 1836 would lay the foundation for his ideas about evolution and natural selection. Upon his return Darwin lived in London before retiring to his residence at Down, a secluded village in Kent. For the next forty years he conducted his research there and wrote the works that would change human understanding forever. Knowing of the resistance from the orthodox scientific and religious communities, Darwin publishedThe Origin of Speciesin 1859 only when another naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, independently reached the same conclusions. His other works includeThe Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex(1871) andRecollections of My Mind and Character, also titledAutobiography(1887). Charles Darwin'sDiary of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Beaglewas published posthumously in 1933. Darwin died in 1882; he is buried in Westminster Abbey. Duncan M. Porter received his BA and MA from Stanford and his PhD from Harvard in biological sciences. He has worked for the University of San Francisco, Washington University, and Virginia Tech, as well as the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. He is professor emeritus of biological sciences at Virginia Tech. Peter Graham received his PhD from Duke University. He was given the Clifford Cutchins Professorship from 2000 to 2005 and was a Jane Austen Society of North America Traveling Scholar from 2009 to 2010. His books include Darwin's Sciences with Duncan M. Porter, Don Juan and Regency England, and Jane Austen & Charles Darwin- Naturalists and Novelists.