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Handbook of Medicinal Plants
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Table of Contents

  • About the Editors
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • PART I. INTRODUCTION
  • Chapter 1. Trends and Challenges in Phytomedicine: Research in the New Millennium (Hildebert Wagner)
  • Introduction
  • Quality Assurance of Medicinal Drugs and Phytopreparations
  • Search for New Bioactive Compounds and Chemical Modifications of Leading Compounds
  • Molecular-Biological Screening: Overall Pharmacological Profiles and Synergistic Effects
  • Clinical Trials, Pharmacokinetic Studies, and Bioavailability Studies
  • Scope and Aim of Phytomedicine in the Near Future
  • Conclusion
  • PART II. THE USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS THROUGHOUT HISTORY
  • CHINESE MEDICINAL PLANTS
  • Chapter 2. History of Application of Medicinal Plants in China (Chang-Xiao Liu)
  • Introduction
  • Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs
  • Brief History of Application of Medicinal Plants
  • Medicinal Plants in China in the Past Century
  • Development of Resources
  • Chapter 3. Ethnopharmacology of Traditional Chinese Drugs from Medicinal Plants (Chang-Xiao Liu)
  • Introduction
  • Diaphoretics
  • Antitussive Expectorants and Antiasthmatics
  • Drugs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness
  • Purgative Drugs
  • Drugs Expelling Wind and Dampness
  • Aromatic Drugs Transforming Dampness
  • Drugs Benefiting Urination and Draining Dampness
  • Drugs Warming the Interior
  • Drugs Regulating Qi
  • Drugs Relieving Food Stagnation
  • Drugs Expelling Parasites
  • Drugs Stopping Bleeding
  • Drugs Regulating Blood Conditions
  • Drugs Tranquilizing the Mind
  • Drugs Pacifying the Liver and Subduing Endogenous Wind
  • Drugs That Open Orifices
  • Tonics
  • Astringent Drugs
  • Chapter 4. Research and Development of New Drugs Originating from Chinese Medicinal Plants (Chang-Xiao Liu and Zohara Yaniv)
  • Introduction
  • Pathway of Research and Development from Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs
  • The Treatment Principles of Chinese Traditional Medicine
  • Valuable Clinical Results of the Application of National Minority Drugs
  • Active Compounds Isolated from Chinese Medicinal Plants
  • Types of Pharmacological Activities
  • The Challenges of Modern Research and the Development of Medicinal Plants
  • Conclusion
  • MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NATIVE CULTURES
  • Chapter 5. African Medicinal Plants (Ruth Kutalek and Armin Prinz)
  • Introduction
  • Strophantus spp., Apocynaceae
  • Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Apocynaceae
  • Rauwolfia vomitoria Azfel (Apocynaceae)
  • Physostigma venenosum Balf. (Fabaceae)
  • Future Prospects
  • Chapter 6. Dilemmas and Solutions: Native American Plant Knowledge (Daniel E. Moerman)
  • A Mother's Dilemma
  • A Plant's Dilemma
  • Two Dilemmas Yield a Solution
  • Case Example: Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
  • Final Words
  • Chapter 7. Ethnobotany and Ethnomedicine of the Amazonian Indians (Sir Ghillean T. Prance)
  • Introduction
  • The Yanomami
  • Arrow Poisons
  • Narcotics and Stimulants
  • Fish Poisons
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 8. Healers and Physicians in Ancient and Medieval Mediterranean Cultures (Alain Touwaide)
  • Traditional Historiography
  • Two Main Works
  • The Range of Materia Medica
  • Transformations of Texts over Time
  • Plant Representations
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 9. Remedies from the Bush: Traditional Medicine Among the Australian Aborigines (Emanuela Appetiti)
  • Introduction
  • The Dreamtime
  • Plants and People
  • Treatment of Common Ailments
  • Women's Medicine
  • Two Remarkable Plants
  • Other Uses of Medicinal Plants
  • Nonplant Materia Medica
  • Conclusion
  • PART III. TECHNOLOGIES IN MEDICINAL PLANT RESEARCH
  • Chapter 10. Production and Breeding of Medicinal Plants (Eva Nemeth)
  • Short History of Medicinal Plant Production
  • The Present Situation and Characteristics of Medicinal Plant Cultivation in Europe
  • The Role and Significance of Harvesting from Wild Habitats
  • Characteristics of Breeding Medicinal Plants
  • Chapter 11. Biological Screening of Medicinal Plants (Ming-Wei Wang)
  • Introduction
  • Drug Discovery in Ancient Times
  • Random Drug Screening Using Animal Models
  • High-Throughput Screening Technologies
  • Future Prospects
  • Chapter 12. Biotechnology in Medicinal Crop Improvement (Efraim Lewinsohn and Ya'akov Tadmor)
  • Introduction
  • Utilization of DNA Markers in Medicinal Plants
  • Construction of Genetic Maps Utilizing DNA Markers
  • Utilization of Genetic Engineering in Medicinal Plants
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 13. In Vitro Cultivation of Medicinal Plants (Christoph Wawrosch)
  • Introduction
  • Plant Tissue Culture Techniques
  • In Vitro Plant Propagation
  • In Vitro Production of Secondary Metabolites
  • Conclusion
  • PART IV. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN MEDICINAL APPLICATIONS
  • Chapter 14. Medicinal Plants in the Prevention and Therapy of Cancer (David Mantle and Richard M. Wilkins)
  • Introduction
  • Mistletoe
  • Ginseng
  • Garlic
  • Chapter 15. Phytochemicals and Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (D. Francesco Visioli, Simona Grande, and Claudio Galli)
  • Introduction
  • Plant-Derived Phenols
  • Soy
  • Cocoa
  • Tea
  • Wine
  • Olive Oil
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 16. A Modern Look at Folkloric Use of Anti-Infective Agents (Lester A. Mitscher)
  • Introduction
  • Berberine
  • Sanguinarine
  • Quinine
  • Emetine
  • Individual Antimicrobial Medicinal Plants of Lesser Prominence
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 17. Use of Medicinal Plants in CNS Disorders (Peter John Houghton)
  • Introduction
  • Disorders of the CNS
  • Plants and Derived Compounds Used to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Plants and Derived Compounds Used As Anxiolytics, Tranquilizers, and Sedatives
  • Plants and Derived Compounds with Narcotic Effects
  • Plants and Derived Compounds Used As CNS Stimulants
  • Plants and Derived Compounds Used in Depression
  • Plants Used for Conditions That Display Excessive Aspects of Normal Function
  • Adaptogens
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 18. Herbal Medicine in Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease (Graham Pinn)
  • Introduction
  • Gout
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Obesity
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Thyroid Disorder
  • Menopause
  • Toxicity
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 19. Bioactive Saponins from Plants: Recent Developments (Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois)
  • Introduction
  • Anti-Inflammatory Activity
  • Hepatoprotective Activity
  • Cardiovascular Activity
  • Activity on the Central Nervous System
  • Hypoglycemic Activity
  • Antifungal Activity
  • Antiviral Activities
  • Anticancer and Immune System Related Activity
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 20. Natural Products and Herbal Medicines in the Gastrointestinal Tract (Zohar Kerem)
  • Introduction
  • Antimicrobial Activities of Herbal Products
  • GI Immunoregulation
  • Chemical Considerations in the GI Tract
  • Herbal-Induced Drug Interactions in the GI Tract
  • Antioxidant and Reducing Activities of Herbal Products
  • Conclusion
  • PART V. HOPES AND DANGERS
  • Chapter 21. Challenges and Threats to Interdisciplinary Medicinal Plant Research (Michael Heinrich)
  • Introduction: Patients' Dilemmas in 2005
  • Medicinal Plants and Their Modern and Historical Uses
  • New Methodological Developments
  • Medical Applications: Pharmacology and Clinical Use
  • Future Needs: Phytotherapy and the Concept of Ethnopharmacy
  • Conclusion
  • Index
  • Reference Notes Included

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