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IP Multicast, Volume 1

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Table of Contents

Introduction xv

Chapter 1 Introduction to IP Multicast 1

What Problem Does Multicast Solve? 3

Multicast Applications and Services 5

One-to-Many Multicast Applications 5

Many-to-Many Multicast Applications 6

Many-to-One Multicast Applications 7

Multicast Packet 8

What Is a Source? 9

What Is a Receiver? 10

L3 Multicast Is Built on the TCP/IP Protocol Stack 10

It's a Group Thing 11

IPv4 Layer 3 Multicast Addressing Defines Groups 13

IPv4 Multicast Group Address Assignments 14

Important Multicast Groups and Group Considerations 16

IPv4 Local Network Control 16

IPv4 Inter-Network Control 18

The History of Multicast 19

The MBone 20

Native Internet Multicast 20

IPv6 Multicast 20

Multicast Development and Standardization 21

Summary 21

Chapter 2 Network Access and Layer 2 Multicast 23

Layered Encapsulation 23

MAC Address Mapping 26

Switching Multicast Frames 28

Group Subscription 29

IGMP on the Gateway Router 30

IGMP Versions 31

IGMPv1 31

IGMPv2 32

IGMPv3 35

Configuring IGMP on a Router 37

Mixed Groups: Interoperability Between IGMPv1, v2, and v3 38

Layer 2 Group Management 38

Cisco Group Management Protocol 38

The CGMP Leave Process 39

Router-Port Group Management Protocol 39

Snooping 40

IGMP Snooping 40

Maintaining Group Membership 44

Configuring IP IGMP Snooping 44

The Process of Packet Replication in a Switch 45

Protecting Layer 2 47

Storm Control 47

Summary 49

References 49

Chapter 3 IP Multicast at Layer 3 51

Multicast Hosts 52

Networked Groups: Client/Server 52

Network Hosts 53

Multicast Routing: An Introduction to Protocol Independent Multicast and Multicast Trees 54

Seeing the Forest Through the Trees 55

What Is a Network Tree? 55

Concepts of PIM Group States 57

The (*,G) State Entry 58

The (S,G) State Entry 60

Reverse Path Forwarding 61

Two Types of Trees 63

Source Trees (Shortest Path Trees) 64

Shared Trees 66

Branches on a Tree 68

PIM Neighbors 68

Designated Routers 69

PIM Messages: Join, Leave, Prune, Graft, and Assert 72

Join 75

Leave and Prune 75

Graft 75

Assert 75

PIM Modes 76

PIM Dense-Mode 76

PIM Sparse-Mode 77

PIM Sparse-Dense Mode 80

Multicast Flow at the Leaf 81

Leaving an IGMP Group 85

The Rendezvous Point and Shared Tree Dynamics 87

From a Shared Tree to a Source Tree 94

Building the Multicast Routing Information Base 101

Multicast Routing Information Base and Multicast Forwarding Information Base 102

PIM-BiDir 104


Summary 119

Chapter 4 Protocol Independent Multicast 121

RP Overview 121

IP Multicast Domains 124

Basic PIM Configuration 128

Static RP 129

PIM Dense Mode 132

Dynamic RP Information Propagation 134

Auto RP 135

Sample Configuration: Auto-RP for IOS 137

Sample Configuration: Auto-RP for IOS-XR 139

Sample Configuration: Auto-RP for NX-OS 141

BSR 143

Sample Configuration: BSR in IOS 145

Sample Configuration: BSR in IOS-XR 146

Sample Configuration: BSR in NX-OS 148

Anycast RP 149

Multicast Source Discovery Protocol 150

PIM Anycast RP 151

Sample Configuration: Anycast RP with MSDP on IOS 153

Sample Configuration: Anycast with MSDP on IOS-XR 155

Sample Configuration: Anycast on NX-OS 158

Phantom RP 160

Sample Configuration-Phantom RP on IOS 161

PIM SSM Configuration 162

Summary 164

Chapter 5 IP Multicast Design Considerations and Implementation 167

Multicast Group Scoping 167

Organizational and Global Group Assignment Considerations 168

IPv4 Considerations 170

Using Group Scoping for Hybrid Designs and RP Placement 173

Multicast RP Design with MSDP Mesh Group 178

Multicast RP Hybrid Design with Scoped Multicast Domains 181

RP Placement 186

Multicast Traffic Engineering and Forwarding 186

More on mRIB, mFIB, and RPF Checks 188

Traffic Engineering Using IP Multipath Feature 197

Multicast Traffic Engineering: Deterministic Path Selection 201

IP Multicast Best Practices and Security 209

Before Enabling PIM 209

General Best Practices 210

Tuning the Network for Multicast 211

Manually Selecting Designated Routers 212

Basic Multicast Security 216

Protecting Multicast Control-plane and Data-plane Resources 216

Securing Multicast Domains with Boundaries and Borders 218

Protecting Multicast RPs 225

Best Practice and Security Summary 226

Putting It All Together 228

Scenario: Multicaster's Bank Corp. Media Services 228

Summary 238

Chapter 6 IPv6 Multicast Networks 239

IPv6 Fundamentals: A Quick Overview 239

IPv6 Layer 3 Multicast Group Addressing 242

IPv6 Multicast Group Address Assignments 245

IANA Unicast-Prefix-Based Multicast Address 247

IPv6 Source-Specific Addressing 248

Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 249

IPv6 Address Scoping and Schema Considerations 249

Multicast-IPv6-Address-to-MAC-Address Mapping 250

IPv6 Layer 2 and Layer 3 Multicast 250

Multicast Listener Discovery for IPv6 251

MLDv1 251

MLDv2 253

Configuring MLD and the MLD Message Process 253

Multicast Listener Discovery Joining a Group and Forwarding Traffic 255

Leaving a MLD Group 258

Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping 258

Configuring MLD Snooping 259

IPv6 Layer 3 Multicast and Protocol Independent Multicast 6 (PIM6) 261

PIM6 Static mroute Entries 268

PIM6 Group Modes 269

Summary 282

Chapter 7 Operating and Troubleshooting IP Multicast Networks 283

Multicast Troubleshooting Logic 283

Multicast Troubleshooting Methodology 283

Baseline Check: Source and Receiver Verification 287

State Verification 293

RP Control-Plane Check 294

Hop-by-Hop State Validation 299

Overview of Common Tools for Multicast Troubleshooting 303

Ping Test 303

SLA Test 304

Common Multicast Debug Commands 307

debug ip mpacket Command 307

debug ip pim Command 307

debug ip igmp Command 308

Multicast Troubleshooting 309

Multicast Troubleshooting Case Study 310

Baseline Check: Source and Receiver Verification 312

Important Multicast show Commands 326

show ip igmp group Command 326

show ip igmp interface/show igmp interface Commands 326

show ip mroute/show mrib route Command 328

show ip pim interface/show pim interface Commands 330

show ip pim neighbor/show pim neighbor Commands 330

show ip pim rp Command 331

show ip pim rp mapping/show pim rp mapping Commands 332

Summary 333

9781587144592 TOC 9/8/2016

About the Author

Josh Loveless, CCIE No. 16638, is a customer solutions architect for Cisco Systems. He has been with Cisco for four years, providing architecture and support services for Tier 1 service providers as well as for many of Cisco's largest enterprise customers, specializing in large-scale routing and switching designs. Currently, Josh is helping Cisco's customers in the defense and intelligence industries meet the challenges of an ever-changing technology landscape, designing secure automated networks with advanced capabilities, including IP multicast. Prior to joining Cisco, he spent 15 years working for large service providers and enterprises as both an engineer and an architect, as well as providing training and architecture services to some of Cisco's trusted partners. Josh maintains two CCIE certifications, Routing and Switching and Service Provider.Ray Blair, CCIE No. 7050, is a distinguished systems engineer and has been with Cisco Systems since 1999. He uses his years of experience to align technology solutions with business needs, insuring customer success. Ray started his career in 1988, designing industrial monitoring and communication systems. Since that time, he has been involved with server/database administration and the design, implementation, and management of networks that included networking technologies from ATM to ZMODEM. He maintains three CCIE certifications in Routing and Switching, Security, and Service Provider (No. 7050), is also a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), and a Certified Business Architect (No. 00298). Ray is coauthor of two Cisco Press books, Cisco Secure Firewall Services Module and Tcl Scripting for Cisco IOS. He speaks at many industry events and is a Cisco Live distinguished speaker.Arvind Durai, CCIE No. 7016, is a director of solution integration for Cisco Advanced Services. His primary responsibility in the past 17 years has been in supporting major Cisco customers in the enterprise sector, including financial, retail, manufacturing, ecommerce, state government, utility (smart grid networks), and healthcare sectors. Some of his focuses have been on security, multicast, network virtualization, and data center, and he has authored several white papers and design guides on various technologies. He has been involved in multicast designs for several enterprise customers in different verticals. He is also one of the contributors in providing the framework for Advanced Services Multicast Audit tool that helps customers assess their operational multicast network to Industry best practices.

Arvind maintains two CCIE certifications: Routing and Switching and Security and also is a Certified Business Architect. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electronics and Communication, a Master's degree in Electrical Engineering (MS), and a Master's degree in Business Administration (MBA). He is a coauthor of three Cisco Press books: Cisco Secure Firewall Services Module, Virtual Routing in the Cloud, and TcL Scripting for Cisco IOS. He has coauthored IEEE WAN smart grid architecture and presented in many industry forums, such as IEEE and Cisco Live.

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