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Marine Biodeterioration


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Table of Contents

Marine Wood-Boring Organisms.- An Overview of Research on Marine Borers: Past Progress and Future direction.- Abstract.- History of Marine Borer Research.- Recent and Current Research.- Future Direction and Needs.- The Microbial Ecology of Crustacean Wood Borers.- Materials and Methods.- Bacterial Isolation and Culture Media.- Results and Discussion.- Nutrition in the Teredinidae.- Abstract.- Larval Nutrition.- Adult Nutrition.- Filter Feeding.- The Role of Wood.- The Role of Dissolved Organic Material (DOM).- Symbiotic Bacteria.- Future Studies.- Biochemical Aspects of Molluscan Shell Mineralization.- The System of Shell Formation.- Ion Movement.- Control of Conditions for Shell Deposition.- Organic Constituents of Shell.- Energy of Shell Deposition.- Concluding Remarks.- Maintenance of Waterfront Structures.- New Structures.- Construction Techniques.- Existing Structures.- Inspection.- Restoration.- Repair.- Summary.- Recent Research and Future Trends for Protecting Wood in the Marine Waters.- Abstract.- Recent Research Efforts.- Microbiological Research Efforts.- Remedial Treatments.- Treated-Wood Strength Tests.- Future Trends in Research.- Microfouling.- The Microbial Ecology of Marine Surfaces.- Abstract.- The Primary Film.- Bacterial Repulsion from Surfaces.- Algal Fouling.- Control of Algae.- Invertebrate Settlement on Microbial Films.- Multi-Species Films.- Single-Species Films.- Lectin Model.- Inducer of Metamorphosis.- Implications for Other Fouling Organisms.- Control of Invertebrates.- Initial Events in Microbial Film Formation.- Abstract.- Methods and Materials.- Typical Results.- Discussion: Priorities for Future Research and Relationship to Ongoing Investigations.- Succession in Microfouling.- Methods and Materials.- Results.- Static Estuarine Experiment.- Flowing Marine Experiment.- Comparison Between Experiments.- Discussion.- Conclusion.- Determination of the Biomass, Physiological Status, Community Structure, and Extracellular Plaque of the Microfouling Film.- Abstract.- Methods.- Exposure of the Samples.- Analysis of the Samples.- Results and Discussion.- Scanning Electron Microscopic Morphology of the Microfouling Film.- Biochemical Analysis of the Microfouling Film.- Biomass.- Community Structure.- Physiological Status.- Extracellular Polysaccharide Formation.- Differences Between Microfouling Films on Titanium and Aluminum.- Effect of Brush Cleaning.- Morphology of the Extracellular Polymer Plaque.- Biochemical Analysis of the Extracellular Polymer Plaque.- Physiological Status Measurements.- Microbial Films and Energy Losses.- Abstract.- Measurement of Energy Losses due to Fouling Deposits.- Fouling Monitor.- Fouling Biofilm Formation.- Mathematical Model of Fouling Biofilm Formation.- Influence of Environmental Factors on Process Rate.- Other Factors Influencing Accumulation Rate.- Influence of Biofilms on Fluid Frictional Resistance.- Process Description.- Mathematical Model for Frictional Resistance due to Biofouling.- Other Factors Influencing Fluid Frictional Resistance.- Influence of Biofilms on Heat Transfer Resistance.- Process Description.- Mathematical Model for Heat Transfer Resistance due to Biofouling.- Other Factors Influencing Heat Transfer Resistance.- Summary.- Nomenclature.- Microfouling and Corrosion.- Abstract.- Microbiological Corrosion.- Corrosion Mechanisms.- Corrosion Effects on Microfouling.- Microfouling Effects on Corrosion.- The Influence of Microbial Fouling Films on Hydrodynamic Drag of Rotating Discs.- Abstract.- Experimental.- Rotating Discs.- Growth of Microbial Films.- Disc Torque.- Flat-Plate Drag Prediction Method.- Results.- Rotating Discs.- Similarity Law Predictions for Flat Plates.- Discussion.- Control of Microfouling in Ship Piping and Heat Exchanger Systems.- Importance of Microfouling Aboard Ship.- Fouling Control Methods.- Microfouling Control Experiments at Key West.- Equipment Description.- Microfouling Control Systems.- Method of Test.- Results.- Conclusions.- Fouling Larvae and Settlement.- Overview of Research on Marine Invertebrate Larvae, 1940-1980.- Fundamentals.- The Sequence of Development and Settlement.- The Pelagic Stage.- Provenance and Rearing.- Energy Requirements of Pelagic Larvae.- Swimming and Reactions to Light and Gravity.- Responses to Pressure and to Other Scalars.- Larval Navigation.- Sensory Structures in Pelagic Larvae.- Settlement.- Attachment and Exploration.- Larval Sense Organs.- Orientation.- Fixation.- Surface Films.- Texture, Contour, and Shape Preferences.- Territorial behavior.- Gregarious and Associative Settlement.- Settlement-Inducing Substances.- Metamorphosis Inducers.- The Future Course of Larval Biology.- Methods of Dispersal Among Fouling Organisms and Possible Consequences for Range Extension and Geographical Variation.- Dispersal of Larvae.- Larvae in the Open Sea.- Larvae in Coastal Waters.- Larvae in Estuaries.- Dispersal by Rafting.- Dispersal by the Activities of Man.- Geographic Variation.- Biochemical Control of Larval Recruitment and Marine Fouling.- Introduction: Biochemical Control of Larval Settlement, Attachment, and Metamorphosis.- Biochemical Inducers.- Facilitators.- Receptors.- Transducers.- Inhibitors.- Generality and Significance.- Conclusion.- Ascidian Larvae: Structure and Settlement.- Larvae of Solitary Ascidians.- Larvae of Colonial Ascidians.- Adhesive Papillae.- Noneversible Papillae.- Eversible Papillae.- Responses of Larvae to Light, Gravity, Specific Substrates, and Other Factors.- Metamorphosis.- Environmental Factors in Bryozoan Settlement.- Bugula as a Model System.- Surface Wettability and Settlement.- Adsorbed Organic Films and Settlement.- Microbial Primary Films and Settlement.- Competitive Ability and Gregarious Settlement.- Seasonal Changes and Fouling Community Interactions.- Seasonal Changes in the Fouling Community.- Fouling Community Development.- Competitive Interactions.- Seasonal Changes, Development, and Stability.- Macrofouling.- A Brief Overview of the Effects of Macrofouling.- Fouling on Ship and Submarine Hulls.- Seawater Piping Systems on Ships.- Sonar Domes.- Navigational Buoys.- Offshore Platforms; OTEC.- Coastal Power Stations.- Moored Oceanographie Instruments.- The Attachment of Microfouling Diatoms.- Field Experiments.- Laboratory Experiments.- Microscopy.- The Attachment of Fouling Macroalgae.- Spore Settlement.- Spore and Germling Attachment.- Initial Spore Attachment.- Release of Spore Adhesive.- Primary Rhizoid Formation.- Secondary Rhizoid Formation.- Histochemistry of Spore and Rhizoid Formation.- The Attachment of Macrofouling Invertebrates.- Site Selection.- Temporary and Permanent Attachment of Fouling Larvae.- The Attachment of the Mussel.- The Attachment of the Barnacle Larva.- Cementing Apparatus of the Adult Balanidae.- Chemistry of the Barnacle Adhesive.- The Structure and Stability of Marine Macrofouling Communities.- Theory.- Methods.- Results and Discussion.- Replicate Fouling Panels and Their Variability.- Abstract.- Panel Variability.- Species-Diversity Estimates Within a Series of Panels.- Percent-Cover Estimates Within a Series of Panels.- Surveys of Panel-Series Variability Within a Region.- Results.- Fouling Organisms.- Variability in Number of Sessile Species on Panel Series in Puget Sound at Nonpolluted Areas.- Variability in Number of Sessile Species on Panel Series in Puget Sound at Polluted Areas.- Variability in Percent Cover on Panel Series in Puget Sound at Nonpolluted Areas.- Variability in Percent Cover on Panel Series in Puget Sound at Polluted Areas.- Discussion.- Fouling and Paint Behavior on Naval Surface Ships after Multiple Underwater Cleaning Cycles.- Abstract.- Survey Plan.- Underwater Documentation.- Quantifying the Documentation.- Fouling Rating Scale.- Paint Deterioration Rating (PDR) Scale.- Ratings as a Diagnostic Tool.- The Fouling Rating Scale.- Paint Deterioration Rating Scale.- Using the Rating Scale.- When to Clean.- Paint Life.- Refouling.- Quality of Cleaning.- AF/AC Life Cycle Parameters.- Formulation.- Substrate/Primer Interaction.- Application of AF and AC.- Underwater Maintenance.- Underwater Repair.- Removal.- Disposal.- General Conclusions.- Coatings and Technology.- Coating Selection for Optimum Ship Performance.- Background.- Approach.- Renewable-Surface AF Coatings (Mechanical Rejuvenation).- Renewable-Surface AF Coatings (Self-Ablative).- Unattended Long-Term AF Coatings (Hard, Smooth, Low Leach Rate).- Unattended Long-Term AF Coatings (Controlled-Release).- Ship Preparation: Surface Preparation and Fairing.- Underwater Maintenance Techniques.- Cleaning and Macrofouling Removal.- Repairs, Touch-Ups, and Polishing.- Roughness Effects.- Surface Microroughness Measurements.- Factors for Coating Selection.- Screening and Field Tests.- Other Factors for Selection.- Economic Gains.- Conclusions.- Erosion and Hydrodynamics of Biofouling Coatings.- Abstract.- Theoretical Considerations.- Erosion and Seawater Flow.- Erosion and Coating Formulation.- Antifouling Performance.- Results with Slow-Eroding Formulations.- Conclusion.- Fluoropolymer Coatings for the Marine Environment.- Abstract.- Fluorinated Epoxies, Polyols, and Polyurethanes.- Sprayable Fluorinated Coatings.- Nonsprayable Fluorinated Coatings.- Field Operations.- Dynamic Coating Evaluation-Seamule.- Static Coatings Evaluation-Naos Island.- Surfaces Evaluated.- Frequency of Barnacle Settlement.- Barnacle Adhesion Measurements.- Barnacle Adhesion Data.- Future Research.- The Chemical and Physical Characterization of Marine Coatings Containing Organotin Antifoulants.- Coating Systems and Methods of Approach.- Toxicant Chemistry.- Leaching Mechanisms.- New Methods for in situ Coating Evaluations.- Conclusions.- Electrochemical Control of Fouling.- Abstract.- Electrolytic Hypochlorination.- Electrolytic Hypochlorination Evaluation.- Initial Test Results.- Test Program.- Test Setup.- Continuous Hypochlorination.- Intermittent Hypochlorination.- Biofouling Removal.- Conclusions.- Recommendations.- Toxicity Testing of Candidate Antifouling Agents and Accelerated Antifouling Paint Testing.- Antifouling Agents.- Toxicity Testing.- The Admiralty Marine Technology Establishment (AMTE) Sequence of Toxicity Testing.- Accelerated Testing of Antifouling Paints.- Removal of Leached Copper.- Fouling Control Technology.- Technology for Control of Marine Biofouling-A Review.- Abstract.- Sources of Marine Biological Fouling.- The Importance of the Slime Layer.- Interrelationships in the Marine Fouling Community.- Marine Biodeterioration.- Fouling Control Technology (FCT) Overview.- Designing Integrated Fouling Control Systems.- Problems with Working in the Ocean.- General Systems Overview-Cybernetics.- Definitions.- Basic Systems Approach.- Evaluation of Efficacy.- Bioactive Material Selection.- In Situ Tests.- Accelerated Tests.- Chemical Control Technology.- Toxic Control Agents.- Advanced Chemical-Control Concepts.- Scrubbing.- Historic and Economic Perspective.- Exterior Surfaces.- Interior Surfaces.- Sonics.- Electric Currents and Fields.- Magnetic Fields.- Optical Methods.- Nuclear Methods.- Thermal-Control Methods.- Osmotic-Control Methods.- Surface Modifications.- Explosive Removal Method.- Velocity-Control Techniques.- Appendix A: Performance of Selected U.S. Navy Antifouling (AF) Coatings.

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