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Physical Dimensions of Aging-2e

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Table of Contents

Part I. An Introduction to AgingChapter 1. Quantity and Quality of Life What Is Aging?How Is Aging Described?What Causes Aging? Can the Aging Process Be Slowed?How Does Physical Aging Affect the Quality of Life?Quality of Life ComponentsHealth and Fitness Contributions in Different Age CategoriesKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsChapter 2. Individual DifferencesAssessment of Individual DifferencesSources of Individual DifferencesHow Research Design Affects Our View of Individual DifferencesCan the Process of Studying People Influence Individual Differences?Biological AgeImportance of Individual Differences in Understanding Aging Research Key TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsPart II. Physical Changes in Structure, Capacity, and Endurance Chapter 3. Physical Development and DeclineChanges in Body ShapeChanges in Body CompositionChanges in BoneCoping With the Interface of Aging Bones, Muscles, and TendonsSkin: Taking the Brunt of the Environment for YearsKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsChapter 4. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary FunctionAging Effects on the Cardiovascular SystemAging Effects on the Respiratory SystemPreventing or Postponing Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory SystemsKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsChapter 5. Muscular Strength and PowerStrength and PowerChanges in Muscular Strength With AgeWhy Strength Decreases With AgeResistance Training for StrengthMuscular PowerKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingPart III. Motor Coordination, Motor Control, and SkillChapter 6. Balance and PostureDefining the Multiple Dimensions of BalanceTheoretical Framework of Balance and MobilityIntrinsic Systems Contributing to Balance and MobilityAge-Associated Changes in the Systems Contributing to Balance and MobilityPostureEvaluating the Multiple Dimensions of BalanceLocomotionAge-Associated Changes in GaitMeasuring GainFalling-When Balance FailsCan Falling in the Elderly Be Prevented?Key TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsChapter 7. Behavioral SpeedResponse SpeedAge-Sensitive Factors That Affect Response SpeedReaction Time and VariabilityOther Factors Influencing Speed of ProcessingTheories of Response SlowingNeurobiological Explanations of Age-Related SlowingMovement SpeedFunctional Significance of Behavioral SpeedKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsChapter 8. Motor Control, Coordination, and SkillDefinitions of Coordination, Control, and LearningAge-Related Sensorimotor Changes That Affect Coordination and ControlTheoretical Strategies to Explain Coordination, Control, and LearningHow Coordination and Control Are AccomplishedUpper Limb and Hand ControlAging Effects on Two Important Tasks: Driving and HandwritingLearning Physical SkillsMechanisms of Learning: Neural PlasticityCompensatory Strategies for Losses of CoordinationPsychological and Emotional Factors That Influence Coordination and LearningKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsPart IV. Physical-Psychosocial RelationshipsChapter 9. Health, Exercise, and Cognitive FunctionConcepts of Physical Activity, Health and Fitness, and Cognitive FunctionHealth and Physical Activity Effects on Cognitive FunctionMechanisms by Which Physical Activity May Benefit CognitionProcess by Which Fitness May Benefit Cognitive FunctionImplications of a Physical Activity-Cognition Relationship for Older AdultsKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingChapter 10. Health-Related Quality of LifeQuality of LifeWell-BeingPhysical Function, Physical Activity, Fitness, and ExerciseInfluence of Exercise on Well-BeingCharacteristics of Exercise Related to Well-BeingKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsPart V. Physical Performance and AchievementChapter 11. Physical Function of Older AdultsDefinitions of Physical FunctionHierarchy of Physical Function in Older AdultsDetermining Physical Function in the ElderlyRole of Physical Activity in Postponing Disability and Facilitating Independent LivingExercise Interventions and Physical FunctionExpectations for Physical Performance of the Old and Oldest-OldKey TermsReview QuestionsSuggested ReadingsChapter 12. Physically Elite Older AdultsWho Are the "Physically Elite" Older Adults?Masters AthletesStudying the Elite Physical Performance of Masters AthletesMasters Athletes' Record PerformancesEstimating Age-Related Changes in Physiological Function CapacityNonphysiological Factors That Influence Maximum Sport PerformanceSocial Support Systems and the Positive Secular TrendHow Do They Do It?Key TermsReview QuestionsSuggested Readings

About the Author

Waneen W. Spirduso, EdD, is the Oscar and Anne Mauzy Regents Professor in the department of kinesiology and health education at The University of Texas (UT) at Austin. She was chair of the UT (Austin) department of kinesiology and health education for 14 years and served as interim dean of the College of Education for 2-1/2 years. Since 1975 her academic interests, research, and presentations have focused on issues central to gerontology and kinesiology, and her research programs have been sponsored by four of the National Institutes of Health and several local foundations. A widely published author, Dr. Spirduso is also a popular speaker at conferences across the United States. She is the recipient of many honors and awards, including recognition as the Texas Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar in 1986 and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar (AAHPERD) in 1987. She served two terms as president of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) and one term as president of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE). Dr. Spirduso is a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America, and a member of AAHPERD, ACSM, and AAKPE. Karen L. Francis, PhD, is an assistant professor in the department of exercise and sport science at the University of San Francisco. She received her master's degree and PhD in motor control and learning and a doctoral portfolio in gerontology from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Francis' primary research interest is in the loss of hand motor control that occurs with aging. She is a member of the Gerontological Society of America, the Society for Neuroscience, and the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. Priscilla Gilliam MacRae, PhD, is professor of sports medicine and director of the Motor Behavior Laboratory at Pepperdine University. She received her MS from the University of Arizona and her PhD from the University of Texas at Austin. She completed postdoctoral training at the University of Southern California. MacRae has published 38 research articles and book chapters, presented in national and international meetings, and received the Harriet and Charles Luckman Distinguished Teaching Award from Pepperdine University. Her research has been funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), AARP Andrus Foundation, Jewish Homes for the Aging, California Physical Therapy Association, and Pepperdine University. Dr. MacRae is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and a member of the Southwest Chapter of ACSM, the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD), the Society for Neuroscience, and the Gerontological Society of America. Dr. MacRae's research focuses on effects of exercise on physiological and psychological aspects of aging. Her current research focuses on how older adults acquire new motor skills, including changes in older adults' ability to control force in a visuomotor tasks that involve precision and speed. Her research populations have included older adults at many levels of function, from elite female marathoners to nursing-home residents.

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