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Torture and Democracy


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Table of Contents

Preface xv Acknowledgments xix Introduction 1 Historical Claims 3 Puzzles and Cautions 5 The Priority of Public Monitoring 8 Variations among States 11 Variations within States 15 National Styles of Stealth Torture 16 Torture and Democracy 21 Does Torture Work? 23 Who Cares? 25 Part I: Torture and Democracy 33 Chapter 1: Modern Torture and Its Observers 35 Defining Torture 36 Monitoring Torture 39 Chapter 2: Torture and Democracy 45 The National Security Model 46 The Juridical Model 49 The Civic Discipline Model 55 Hell Is in the Details 60 Part II: Remembering Stalinism and Nazism 65 Introduction 67 Chapter 3: Lights, Heat, and Sweat 69 Sweating and Stealth in America 70 British Psychological Techniques 74 Interrogation Elsewhere in Europe 76 Sweating and Stealth in Russia 79 The Spread of the Russian Style 83 Remembering Pavlov 87 Chapter 4: Whips and Water 91 Labussie're's List 92 Documenting Nazi Torture 93 Torture in Germany 95 Torture in Nazi-Occupied Europe 97 Remembering the War 104 Chapter 5: Bathtubs 108 Masuy's Bathtub 109 Marty's Magneto 111 The French Gestapo and Electric Torture 112 The Decline of Sweating and Stealth 115 The German Gestapo and Modern Torture 117 Remembering Nuremberg 117 The Search for Electric Torture 118 Part III: A History of Electric Stealth 121 Chapter 6: Shock 123 The AC/DC Controversy and the Electric Chair 124 The Mystery of Electric Death 126 Early Police Devices 128 The Mystery of Shock 132 Early Medical Devices 135 Transmitting Shock 138 Later Medical Devices 139 Remembering the Animals 141 Chapter 7: Magnetos 144 What Is a Magneto? 145 Indochina, 1931 146 Out of Indochina 149 Korea, 1931 150 Out of Korea 152 The Lost History of the Magneto 155 French and British Electrotorture after World War II 157 The Colonial Police and Wuillaume's List 160 The Triumph of the Ge'ge'ne 161 Algeria, 1960 163 Remembering the Gestapo 165 Chapter 8: Currents 167 South Vietnamese Torture 170 Vietnam, 1968 172 Bell Telephone Hour 174 Out of Vietnam Again 178 Variation within the French Style 183 Cattle Prods 185 The Electric Cornucopia 186 Remembering Vietnam 188 Chapter 9: Singing the World Electric 190 When Electrotorture Was New 190 Explaining Clean Electrotorture 194 Crafting Electrotorture 197 Surging Forward 201 The Americas 203 Middle East and North Africa 207 Asia 209 Sub-Saharan Africa 211 Europe and Central Asia 214 Explaining the Surge 216 Remembering the Cold War 222 Chapter 10: Prods, Tasers, and Stun Guns 225 Electric Utopia 225 Electric-Free Protest 227 Stun Technology 229 Covering America 230 Remembering Eutopia 237 Chapter 11: Stun City 239 Magneto Torture in Chicago 240 Stun and Torture 242 Tasers and Torture 245 Burning Issues 248 Stun and Democracy 249 But No One Died 252 Civic Shock 253 Welcome to Stun City 255 Part IV: Other Stealth Traditions 259 Introduction 261 Chapter 12: Sticks and Bones 269 Clean Whipping 269 Paddles 271 Beating Feet 273 Remembering Slaves and Sailors 277 Chapter 13: Water, Sleep, and Spice 279 Pumping 280 Choking 281 Showers and Ice 285 Salt and Spice 287 Deprivation of Sleep 290 Remembering the Inquisition 292 Chapter 14: Stress and Duress 294 Great and Lesser Stress Traditions 295 British Stress Tortures 296 French Stress Tortures 301 American Stress Tortures 306 Authoritarian Adaptations 311 Remembering the Eighteenth Century 314 Chapter 15: Forced Standing and Other Positions 316 Old Users after the War 317 Positional Tortures in the Communist World 322 Positional Tortures in the Non-Communist World 324 The Universal Distributor Hypothesis Revisited 329 Remembering the Hooded Men 332 Chapter 16: Fists and Exercises 334 Clean Beating 335 Adapting "the Necktie" 341 Exhaustion Exercises 342 Remembering the Grunts and the Cops 345 Chapter 17: Old and New Restraints 347 Bucking (the Parrot's Perch) 347 The Crapaudine 349 Standing Handcuffs 350 Sweatboxes 351 Adapting Old Restraints 353 The Shabeh 354 Remembering the Allied POWs 357 Chapter 18: Noise 360 Low-Technology Noise 360 High-Technology Noise 363 The CIA and Sensory Deprivation Boxes 368 Beyond the Laboratory 371 Principles and Guinea Pigs 373 Remembering Evil 384 Chapter 19: Drugs and Doctors 385 Police and Drugs 386 The CIA and Drugs 388 The Decline of Pharmacological Torture 390 Soviet Pharmacological Torture 392 Communist Pyschoprisons 394 Lines of Defense 397 Remembering the Prison Doctors 401 V Politics and Memory 403 Chapter 20: Supply and Demand for Clean Torture 405 Historical Claims 406 The Priority of Public Monitoring 409 Variations among and within States 414 National Styles of Stealth Torture 419 The Strength of Low Technology 423 The Power of Whispers 426 Why Styles Change 434 Disciplinary Interventions 439 The Demand for Torture 444 Chapter 21: Does Torture Work? 446 Can Torture Be Scientific? 447 Can Torture Be Restrained? 450 Does Technology Help? 453 Can Torture Be Professionally Conducted? 454 Works Better Than What? 458 Is Anything Better Than Nothing? 460 How Well Do Interrogators Spot the Truth? 463 How Well Do Cooperative Prisoners Remember? 466 How Good Is the Intelligence Overall? 469 Even When Time Is Short? 474 Remembering the Questions 478 Chapter 22: What the Apologists Say 480 Remembering the Battle of Algiers 481 Information in the Battle of Algiers 482 French Interrogation Units 485 Coerced Information in the Algerian War 487 Saving Innocents, Losing Wars 492 Gestapo Stories 493 Stories from the Resistance 495 CIA Stories 500 The Interrogation of Al Qaeda 503 Abu Ghraib and Guanta'namo 508 Afghanistan 511 Testimonial Literature from Other Conflicts 513 Remembering Abu Ghraib 518 Chapter 23: Why Governments Don't Learn 519 How Knowledge Does Not Accumulate 520 How Knowledge Is Not Analyzed 521 How Torture Warrants Might Help 523 Regulating Torture 526 Variations in Regulative Failure 529 Stealth and the Regulation of Torture 532 How Knowledge Does Not Matter 533 Remembering the Soldiers 535 Chapter 24: The Great Age of Torture in Modern Memory 537 The Great Rift 538 The Architecture of Amnesia 540 The Designs of Genius 542 Demons in the City 543 Algerian Souvenirs 545 Caring for the Memories 550 Appendixes A: A List of Clean Tortures 553 B: Issues of Method 557 C: Organization and Explanations 566 D: A Note on Sources for American Torture during the Vietnam War 581 Notes 593 Selected Bibliography 781 Index 819

Promotional Information

Darius Rejali has written a superb genealogy of modern torture. Meticulously researched and filled with surprising insights, Rejali's indictment derives its power from thoughtful analysis and deep historical grounding. It is the best book on the subject that I have encountered. No one should debate the merits of torture without having read it. -- Kenneth Roth, executive director of Human Rights Watch Darius Rejali has given the world an extraordinary work of scholarship and personal passion that no one wants to hear about but that everyone must learn about. Torture and Democracy exposes the core issues facing every nation whose deepest values of human dignity are defiled by its state-sanctioned 'violence workers.' Beyond platitudes, this pioneering expert descends into the torture dungeons around the world to reveal the strategies and tactics secretly used to break human will to resist. A vital book for anyone wanting to understand the whys and hows of torture being practiced today by our own government. -- Philip Zimbardo, author of "The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil" Monumental. Definitive. Devastating. -- Sidney Blumenthal Torture and Democracy brings the fact of torture straight home to democratic societies--societies that are the most reluctant to acknowledge the presence of torture in their midst. Darius Rejali's theme is the appeal of stealth forms of torture in democracies, but he also illuminates the culture of disinformation, self-deluding euphemisms, and outright mythology that accompanies these kinds of torture. Rejali's research has been truly formidable. He has read more widely in more disciplines than any analyst of torture that I know of. -- Edward Peters, author of "Torture" This is a timely and extraordinarily important book, an unprecedented study of torture and its technologies, and of the relationship between torture and types of political systems. The research that went into this book is beyond impressive; it is thorough beyond belief. Torture and Democracy will become a reference for anyone who wants to understand torture. Darius Rejali is to be congratulated. -- Martha Huggins, Tulane University Torture and Democracy is a provocative, state-of-the-art consideration of what Rejali calls 'stealth' or 'clean' torture. He makes a powerful case that democracies tend to be laboratories for these forms of torture and that one of the unintended consequences of democratization is that torture, rather than being eliminated, becomes harder to identify and document. -- Austin Sarat, Amherst College

About the Author

Darius Rejali is professor of political science at Reed College and an internationally recognized expert on modern torture. He is the author of "Torture and Modernity: Self, Society, and State in Modern Iran".


Winner of the 2009 Lemkin Award, Institute for the Study of Genocide Winner of the 2008 Best Book, Human Rights Section of the American Political Science Association "Rejali's approach is to track the different behaviors, trends and traditions in torture throughout history to see who influenced whom and what they did...Rejali, a leading expert on government interrogation techniques, reaches key conclusions. First, monitoring by human rights groups doesn't stop torture, it simply causes torturers to resort to techniques that don't scar...Second, most contemporary torture traditions were passed on like crafts from teacher to apprentice...Third, Rejali writes, a person being tortured is likely to say whatever he thinks his captors want to hear, making it one of the poorest methods of gathering reliable information."--Laurel Maury, Los Angeles Times "Torture and Democracy immediately lays claim to be the most compendious and the most rigorous treatment of the subject yet written. Saul Bellow used to say that we are constantly looking for the book it is necessary to read next. On torture, this is it...Torture and Democracy is the anatomy of sneaky. Rejali regales us with tales of every technique of torture known to man...Rejali's analysis of efficacy is exemplary: at once prudent and trenchant, historically alert and morally sentient."--Alex Danchev, Times Higher Education "[A] magisterial study of torture and how it has developed as a social and moral issue with a focus on developments through the last century."--Scott Horton, Harper's Magazine "An exhaustive study of...'clean tortures,' or tortures that leave no permanent scars. Electrotorture, water tortures, stress and duress positions, beating, noise, drugs and forced exercises all make an appearance. The book is a towering achievement, a serious work of social science on an urgent topic that is too frequently surrounded by assumption and myth. It should be read and disseminated widely...The book is devoted to exploding one myth in particular: that clean tortures can casually and reliably be traced to the ancients, or, failing that, to the Nazis. Rejali's provocative thesis is that most clean tortures were actually born in democracies, especially imperial Britain and France."--Michael O'Donnell, San Francisco Chronicle "Torture and Democracy is a much-needed attempt to put our discussions on a firmer historical and conceptual footing while showing us the realities of what torture is and what it does. Based on a decade of research and approximately 2,000 sources in 14 languages, Torture and Democracy is really several books in one. It is a methodical history of what Rejali calls 'clean' or 'stealth' torture (torture that leaves no marks) in the 20th century; a sociological examination of torture's relationship to democracies; a psychological exploration of torture's impact on societies and individuals; a practical consideration of torture's effectiveness; a philosophical musing on the ethics of torture and interrogation in general; an exhaustive cataloguing of tortures used throughout the ages; and what Rejali calls 'a reliable sourcebook' for those who speak out against torture anywhere."--Michael McGregor, The Oregonian "[Creates] what essentially amounts to an epidemiology of torture. Just as scientists were able to show how HIV traveled around the world by mapping the locatino and date of each outbreak of AIDS, Rejali similarly documents the global transmission of major torture techniquest by drawing up a chronology of their occurrence ... Rejali's accomplishment--and it's a considerable one--is to lay out this vast amount of information to demonstrate patterns few had noticed before."--Brian Zabcik, American Lawyer "Documenting modern torture techniques, [Torture and Democracy] is both horrifying and compelling. The consequences of torture are always unpredictable and Rejali argues that torture fails when it's needed most--in last-minute, ticking bomb scenarios."--Karen J. Greenberg, Financial Times "Dozens of books about torture have been published over the last five years. But none compare to Torture and Democracy for its richly detailed comparative analysis, and its synthesis of historical, psychological, medical, forensic, sociological, and political information to explain what torture is, what it does to victims and perpetrators, and why and how it spreads... Rejali has earned the right to speak authoritatively about the most important question of all: Does torture work? His answer, like his book, is profound, complex, and supported by a wealth of empirical detail."--Lisa Hajjar, Arab Studies Journal "Torture and Democracy, the fruit of a lifetime's study should dispel much ignorance and frequently facile assumptions about the subject."--David Bentley, World Today "Darius Rejali's Torture and Democracy, a decade in the making, will be the canonical source text for information on, and the historical confirmation of, the democratic pedigree of tortures that leave no mark."--Aziz Z. Huq. World Policy Journal "Sprawling, essential... A massive dictionary of the unspeakable."--Gary Bass, Dissent "Rejali's consolidation of the available data on torture is certainly an admirable and relevant task. What is especially provocative and essential about Rejali's scholarship is that he forces readers to retreat from the minutiae of political debates surrounding torture and asks us to examine the larger contextual picture."--Shana Tabak, Democracy & Society "This book is quite simply the most authoritative study of torture ever written. Twenty-five years of painstaking research in the making, it will serve the human rights movement for decades to come."--George Hunsinger, Theology Today "The book suits well as an introduction to the topic of torture (techniques) throughout the world from the 20th century until today... [T]he first two parts of the opus offer a vast amount of information on the historical and technical development of torture across many different states."--Daniela Kaschel, Journal of International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict "Torture and Democracy by Darius Rejali is arguably the most impressive and most important book to be published on torture in the past few years. A monumental achievement of meticulous documentation, theoretical testing, and reasoned argumentation, it is certain to become the yardstick against which future research on torture will be measured... It should be required reading for any scholar or student of torture, and more importantly, for every policy-maker and counter-terrorism practitioner considering whether torture could or should be used to deal with the current terrorist threat."--Richard Jackson, Critical Studies on Terrorism

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